Open Access
Open Peer Review

This article has Open Peer Review reports available.

How does Open Peer Review work?

Intent to stay in the nursing profession and associated factors among nurses working in Amhara Regional State Referral Hospitals, Ethiopia

  • Eshetu Haileselassie Engeda1Email author,
  • Anteneh Messele Birhanu1 and
  • Kefyalew Addis Alene2
BMC Nursing201413:24

DOI: 10.1186/1472-6955-13-24

Received: 12 October 2013

Accepted: 20 August 2014

Published: 25 August 2014

Abstract

Background

Nurses are essential to the health care delivery system especially to meet the health related millennium development goals. However, despite the significant shortage of nurses in Ethiopia, research in the country regarding nurses’ intent to stay in their profession is lacking. This study assessed intent to stay in the nursing profession and associated factors among nurses working in referral hospitals, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia.

Methods

Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 389 nurses from April 8 to May 5, 2013. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select the study participants from five referral hospitals. Data were collected using pretested and structured self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistics were conducted to summarize the sample characteristics. Backward stepwise logistic regression model was fitted and adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was calculated to identify associated factors.

Results

The proportion of nurses who reported intent to stay in the nursing profession was 39.8%. Age 40 to 49 (AOR [95% CI] 4.5 [1.6-12.8]), being married (AOR [95% CI] 2.0 [1.0-3.8]), having a bachelor degree in nursing (AOR [95% CI] 2.2 [1.2-4.1]), satisfaction with: autonomy and professional opportunities (AOR [95% CI] 2.6 [1.2-5.9]), scheduling (AOR [95% CI] 3.4 [1.6-7.5]), and pay and benefits (AOR [95% CI] 8.8 [4.5-17.1]); high continuance commitment (AOR [95% CI] 2.4 [1.3-4.8]) and high normative commitment (AOR [95% CI] 3.7 [1.9-7.2]) were the significant predictors of intent to stay in the nursing profession.

Conclusions

Intent to stay in the nursing profession was low among nurses working in Amhara Regional State referral hospitals. Interventions aimed at increasing the professional autonomy of nurses and revising the current salary and other duty payments are vital.

Keywords

Intent to stay Nurse Amhara region Ethiopia

Background

Nurses, by delivering holistic patient care around the clock [1, 2], are the keystones at each step in the health care delivery system [3], and their contribution is essential to meet the health related Millennium Development Goals [4]. However, the shortage of nurses has become a critical challenge across the globe [5], particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. For instance, it was predicted that in 2015 the density of nurses and midwives in Sub-Saharan countries, including Ethiopia will be 0.65 per 1,000 population, which is substantially lower than the World Health Organization’s standard at 2.2 [6]. Consequently, failure to intervene on the nursing staff shortage at any level in the health system will compromise the quality of care [7].

Although there are many determinants related to the nursing shortage, high turnover is found to be the major contributor [8], which in turn is predominantly associated with nurses’ intent to stay in their profession [9, 10]. Thus, the meaning of the nursing shortage includes not only the shortage of persons qualified in nursing but also the shortage of nurses who intend to stay in their profession [5]. Tourangeau and Cranley hypothesized the following six predictors of nurses’ intent to stay (ITS) in their profession: job satisfaction (JS), personal characteristics of nurses, work group cohesion and collaboration, manager ability and support, burnout, and organizational commitment (OC) of nurses. However, in their research only four were significantly associated with nurses’ ITS: job satisfaction, socio-demographic characteristics, work group cohesion and collaboration, and organizational commitment [11].

In a substantial number of research findings, most of the variance of ITS was consistently explained by JS. [9, 1214]. For instance, an Irish study identified JS as the most accurate predictor of ITS in that nurses who had high level of JS were more likely to show intent to stay [13]. Similarly, Chinese [15] and South African [16] studies showed the same results in that satisfied nurses were more likely to demonstrate ITS as compared with unsatisfied ones.

Organizational commitment was also among the major predictors of nurses’ ITS [1719]. Tourangeau and Cranley defined OC as “the degree of attachment that nurses have towards their employer” (pp 501) [11]. In the three-component conceptualization model of Meyer and Allen, OC was further subdivided into three separate themes of affective commitment (AC), normative commitment (NC) and continuance commitment (CC) [20] and this model remains the leading approach in studying OC by different researchers [21]. In this model, individuals remain employed either because they are emotionally attached to the values and goals of the organization (AC), they feel they have an obligation (NC), or they are aware they would lose a lot if they left (CC). Therefore, OC serves as a stabilizer in strengthening employees’ behavioural intentions [19] and it plays a significant positive role in maintaining ITS [22]. Bakhshi et al. also concluded that the more committed individuals are the more likely they tend to stay in their organization [23].

Others have also found that certain socio-demographic characteristics were related to nurses’ ITS. In Montreal, Canada, about ten nurse personal characteristics were studied in relation to ITS. In this study, the findings revealed that marital status and educational level were significantly associated with ITS. Moreover, the survey showed that ITS was higher for nurses with diploma than nurses with baccalaureate degree [24]. In one Chinese study, bivariate analyses of nurses’ socio-demographic characteristics, including age, educational level, years of employment and job position, only age and job position were significantly and positively associated with ITS [14]. Another Chinese study strengthens these findings in that there were significant correlations between age and years of employment with ITS [15]. Similarly, a South African survey also supported this study in that increasing age was found to predict turnover intent. In the same study, educational level was found to be significantly and negatively associated with ITS in that higher educated nurses were more than twice as likely to consider leaving the profession [16].

Despite numerous studies in other countries, no studies on nurses’ intent to stay in the profession have been conducted in Ethiopia making it difficult to set appropriate nurse retention interventions and policies. Furthermore, because Ethiopia has a severe shortage of nurses overall, it is imperative to understand the factors associated with nurses’ intent to stay in the profession to prevent further reduction in the workforce. Therefore, this study was conducted in order to fill the knowledge gap regarding the factors associated with Ethiopian nurses’ ITS in the profession.

Methods

An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 8 to May 5, 2013 at all 5 of the referral hospitals located in the regional state of Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia – Gondar University referral hospital, Felege Hiwot referral hospital, Debremarkos referral hospital, Debrebrhan referral hospital and Dessie referral hospital. Each hospital serves as a referral centre for more than five million people in its catchment area. Four of the hospitals are under the administration of Amhara Regional State health bureau and the other, Gondar University referral hospital is a university hospital under the administration of the Federal Ministry of Education.

The sampling frame for this study was employed nurses working in one of the 5 referral hospitals. Sample size was determined by using single population proportion formula by considering the following assumptions: 95% confidence interval (CI), 50% proportion (since there was no previous study in the study areas), 5% marginal error. By adding 10% non-response rate, the final sample size was 423. Stratified sampling technique was used to select the study participants. The assumption to use this method was the potential difference in organizational factors which could affect intent to stay in the nursing profession. The samples were proportionally allocated to each hospital. Finally respondents were selected using computer generated random number.

The primary outcome measure of interest was intent to stay in the nursing profession measured with a six item scale (α = 0.95) adopted from the Shanghai study [15]. The items were answered on a five-point Likert scale with response options ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree).

The independent variables included socio-demographic characteristics (age, gender, marital status, work experience as a nurse, job position, current area of practice, highest level of nursing education, having dependent family members and type of hospital), job-satisfaction and organizational commitment. Job satisfaction was measured with a thirty seven-item scale that included five subscales (adopted from previous study [25]): autonomy and professional opportunities, scheduling, support, relationship and interaction, and pay and benefits. These items were answered on a five-point Likert scale with response options ranging from 1 (very dissatisfied) to 5 (very satisfied). In the same manner, organizational commitment was measured with a twenty two-item scale that included 3 subscales (adopted from previous study [26]: affective commitment, continuance commitment and normative commitment. In the same fashion, the items were answered on a five-point Likert scale with response options ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) [See Table 1 for the results of the Cronbach’s alpha].
Table 1

Description of scales of intent to stay, job-satisfaction and organizational commitment used by the current study

Scale

Cronbach’s alpha

Number of items

Intent to stay

0.95

6

Autonomy and professional opportunities

0.90

10

Scheduling

0.88

6

Support

0.89

7

Relationship and interaction

0.80

4

Pay and benefit

0.91

10

Affective commitment

0.74

8

Continuance commitment

0.75

8

Normative commitment

0.88

6

The data were collected using a pre-tested and structured English version self-administered questionnaire. Eight BSc holders for data collection and five graduating class MSc students (one for each hospital) for supervision were recruited and one day’s training was given. At each data collection site, the aim of the research was explained to the study subjects before they completed the questionnaire. Data quality was maintained by using the following methods. First, those questionnaires whose internal consistencies had been checked by previous researchers were used after carefully adopting them in to the current context and without changing the original meaning. Second, the adopted questionnaires were pre-tested on twenty two nurses who were working out of the study area and necessary amendment was made accordingly. Third, training was given for data collectors and supervisors. Fourth, supervision was done throughout the data collection period. Fifth, data were checked for consistency and completeness before entry to computer software for analysis. Finally, Epi Info software was used to control the potential errors associated with data entry.

The data were coded, entered into Epi Info 7, and exported to SPSS version 20 software for analysis. At the beginning of the analysis, summation of the scores for the scale, intent to stay and each of the subscales for job satisfaction and organizational commitment was made. Then, the variables were re-coded and dichotomized. Descriptive statistics were used to illustrate the means, standard deviations, medians and frequencies of the study variables. Bivariate analysis was computed and those variables whose p values less than or equal to 0.2 were fitted into the backward stepwise multivariate logistic regression model. Odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were used to determine the strength of association between dependent and independent variables. P-values less than or equal to 0.05 were considered as statistically significant.

Ethical clearance was obtained from Institutional Review Board of University of Gondar. Then official letter obtained from administrative body of each hospital. The purpose of study was well explained to the study participants and written consent was obtained. Confidentiality was maintained at all levels of the study by avoiding use of name and other identifiers. Participants’ involvement in the study was on voluntary basis; participant’s who were unwilling to participate in the study and those who wish to quit their participation were informed to do so without any restriction.

Results

Sample characteristics

Of the total 423 nurses contacted to participate in the study, 389 returned the questionnaire for a response rate of 91.9%. Approximately 53% of the participants were female, the majority were married (59.6%) and nearly 52% had a bachelor degree in nursing. The mean (SD) age was 32.94 (5.9) years. Most of the respondents were from referral hospitals under the administration of the regional health bureau (63.8%), and the greatest proportion of respondents worked in either surgical (27.5%) or outpatient departments (26.2%). The median (IQR) work experience as a nurse was 6 (4–9) years. Most of the respondents were staff nurses (90.5%) and the majority (55.3%) had no dependent family members living with them [Table 2].
Table 2

Socio-demographic characteristic of nurses in the 5 referral hospitals, Amhara regional state, Ethiopia, 2013

Variable

Number

Percent

Sex

  

Male

182

46.8

Female

207

53.2

Age

  

20-29

116

29.8

30-39

221

56.8

40-49

52

13.4

Marital status

  

Unmarrieda

157

40.4

Married

232

59.6

Highest level of nursing education

  

Diploma (2 or 3 years)

188

48.3

Bachelor degree

201

51.7

Type of hospital

  

Nurses from non-teaching

  

referral hospitals

248

63.8

Nurses from a teaching

  

referral hospital

141

36.2

Work experience as a nurse

  

0-10 years

324

83.3

11-20 years

52

13.4

21-30 years

13

3.3

Job position

  

Staff nurse

352

90.5

Head nurse

37

9.5

Current area of practice

  

Medical department

99

25.4

Surgical department

107

27.5

Outpatient department

102

26.3

Pediatrics department

52

13.4

Othersb

29

7.4

Had dependent family members

  

Yes

174

44.7

No

215

55.3

aUnmarried includes: single (never married), widowed, separated and divorced.

bOthers refers to ophthalmic, fistula and psychiatry units.

The proportion of nurses who reported they intended to stay in the nursing profession was 39.8%. With respect to job-satisfaction, the majority were satisfied with autonomy and professional opportunities, scheduling, and relationships and interactions (64.5%, 63.5% and 69.9% respectively). On the other hand, most of the respondents were dissatisfied with support, and pay and benefits (55.8% and 67.4% respectively). On the organizational commitment aspect, more than half of the respondents had high continuance and normative commitment (58.9% and 51.9% respectively). On the contrary, majority of the respondents had low affective commitment (51.7%) [Table 3].
Table 3

Level of job satisfaction and organizational commitment by different dimensions among nurses in the 5 referral hospitals, Amahara regional state, Ethiopia, 2013

Variable

Number

Percent

Job-satisfaction

  

Autonomy and professional opportunities

  

 Unsatisfied

138

35.5

 Satisfied

251

64.5

Scheduling

  

 Unsatisfied

142

36.5

 Satisfied

247

63.5

Support

  

 Unsatisfied

217

55.8

 Satisfied

172

44.2

Relationship and interaction

  

 Unsatisfied

117

30.1

 Satisfied

272

69.9

Pay and benefit

  

 Unsatisfied

262

67.4

 Satisfied

127

32.6

Organizational commitment

  

Affective commitment

  

 Low

201

51.7

 High

188

48.3

Continuance commitment

  

 Low

160

41.1

 High

229

58.9

Normative commitment

  

 Low

187

48.1

 High

202

51.9

Bivariate and Multivariate Findings: Intent to stay and associated factors

In the bivariate logistic regression analysis; age, marital status, current area of practice, work experience as a nurse, having dependent family members, satisfaction with autonomy and professional opportunities, satisfaction with scheduling, satisfaction with support, satisfaction with relationships and interactions, satisfaction with pay and benefit, having high affective commitment, having high normative commitment and having high continuance commitment showed statistical significance. However, in the multivariate analysis; only age 40–49, marital status, having BSc degree in nursing, satisfaction with autonomy and professional opportunities, satisfaction with schedule, satisfaction with pay and benefit, having high normative commitment and having high continuance commitment were yielded as significantly associated factors of intent to stay in the nursing profession.

Age was significantly associated with intent to stay. Nurses aged 40 to 49 were more likely to stay in their profession than nurses aged 20 to 29 (AOR [95% CI] 4.5 [1.6-12.8]). The other significant factor was marital status with married nurses more likely to report they intended to stay in their profession than those who were unmarried (AOR [95% CI] 2.0 [1.0-3.8]). Nursing education was also among the significant factors as nurses who had bachelor degree in nursing were more likely to report they intended to stay in their profession than nurses who had diploma in nursing (AOR [95% CI] 2.2 [1.2-4.2]).

With respect to job satisfaction, nurses who scored as satisfied on autonomy and professional opportunities were more likely to report they intended to stay in their profession than nurses who scored as unsatisfied (AOR [95% CI] 2.6[1.2-5.9]). Nurses who scored as satisfied on scheduling were more likely to report they intended to stay in their profession than nurses who scored as unsatisfied (AOR [95% CI] 3.4 [1.6-7.5]). Furthermore, nurses who scored as satisfied on pay and benefit were more likely to report they intended to stay in their profession than nurses who scored as unsatisfied (AOR [95% CI] 8.8 [4.5-17.1]).

With respect to organizational commitment, nurses who had high continuance commitment were more likely to report they intended to stay in their profession than nurses who had low continuance commitment (AOR [95% CI] 2.4 [1.3-4.8]). Additionally, nurses who had high normative commitment were more likely to report they intended to stay in their profession than nurses who had low normative commitment (AOR [95% CI] 3.7 [1.8-7.23) [Table 4].
Table 4

Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of factors associated with intent to stay among nurses working in the 5 referral hospitals, Amhara regional state, Ethiopia, 2013

Variable

Intent to stay

Crud odds ratio with 95% CI*

Adjusted odds ratio with 95% CI

Yes

No

Age

    

 20-29 year

35

81

1.00

1.00

 30-39 year

88

133

1.53 (0.95-2.47)

1.74 (0.86-3.44)

 40-49 year

32

20

3.70 (1.87-7.35)

4.49 (1.58-12.77)*

Marital status

    

 Unmarried

38

119

1.00

1.00

 Married

117

115

3.19 (2.04-4.98)

1.99 (1.04-3.84)*

Highest level of nursing education

    

 Diploma

69

119

1.00

1.00

 Bachelor degree

86

115

1.29(0.86-1.94)a

2.22 (1.18-4.16)**

Current area of practice

    

 Medical department

34

65

1.00

1.00

 Surgical department

37

70

1.01 (0.57-1.80)

0.62 (0.26-1.48)

 OPDb

40

62

1.23 (0.70-2.20)

0.68 (0.28-1.65)

 Pediatric department

28

24

2.23 (1.12-4.43)

1.09 (0.37-3.18)

 Othersc

16

13

2.35 (1.02-5.46)

1.80 (0.44-7.47)

Work experience as a nurse

    

 0-10 year

113

211

1.00

1.00

 11-20 year

34

18

3.53 (1.91-6.53)

1.22 (0.35-4.21)

 21-30 year

8

5

2.99 (0.96-9.35)

2.21 (0.20-24.40)

Had dependent family

    

 Yes

89

85

2.36 (1.56-3.58)

1.12 (0.55-2.28)

 No

66

149

1.00

1.00

Autonomy and professional opportunities

    

 Unsatisfied

14

124

1.00

1.00

 Satisfied

141

110

11.35 (6.19-20.82)

2.62 (1.16-5.89)*

 Scheduling

    

 Unsatisfied

17

125

1.00

1.00

 Satisfied

138

109

9.31 (5.29-16.39)

3.42 (1.56-7.47)**

Support

    

 Unsatisfied

43

174

1.00

1.00

 Satisfied

112

60

7.55 (4.78-11.94)

1.55 (0.78-3.07)

Relationship and interaction

    

 Unsatisfied

18

99

1.00

1.00

 Satisfied

137

135

5.58 (3.20-9.73)

1.51 (0.70-3.30)

Pay and benefit

    

 Unsatisfied

48

214

1.00

1.00

 Satisfied

107

20

23.85(13.48-42.23)

8.78(4.50-17.14)***

Affective commitment

    

 Low

48

153

1.00

1.00

 High

107

81

4.21 (2.73-6.50)

1.08 (0.55-2.11)

Continuance commitment

    

 Low

32

128

1.00

1.00

 High

123

106

4.64 (2.91-7.40)

2.45 (1.26-4.78)**

Normative commitment

    

 Low

26

161

1.00

1.00

 High

129

73

10.94 (6.61-18.11)

3.68 (1.87-7.23)***

aP-value 0.2, bOPD = Outpatient department, cOthers include ophthalmic, fistula and psychiatry units, *CI = Confidence Interval.

*P-value <0.05, **P-value <0.001, ***P-value <0.0001.

Hosmer and Lemeshow test: χ2 = 4.40, P = 0.82, df = 8.

Discussion

In this study, the proportion of nurses who intended to stay in the nursing profession was 39.8%. The finding is similar with studies in Hungary (52%) [27] and Taiwan (50.8%) [28]. But it is lower than studies in USA (83.8%) [29] and Ireland (77%) [13] and may be due to differences in job satisfaction as USA and Taiwanese nurses may have higher salaries and more incentives. On the other hand, the proportion is slightly higher than that found in a Korean study (32.8%) [30], which could be attributed to the limited availability of alternative jobs and perceived increased cost that may lead Ethiopian nurses to develop continuance commitment.

With respect to the socio-demographic characteristics, age, marital status and level of nursing education were all associated with Ethiopian nurses’ intent to stay in the profession. Our findings indicated that older nurses (aged 40 to 49 years) were four times more likely to stay in their profession than younger nurses (aged 20 to 29 years); findings consistent with previous research conducted in China [14, 15] and South Africa [16]. One possible explanation for this finding might be that older employees have a greater desire for stability or a higher continuance commitment compared to younger nurses due to their family roles. Similarly, married nurses were nearly two times more likely to report they intended to stay in the profession than unmarried ones. This finding is consistent with studies done Yemen, Jordan, Lebanon and Qatar, and Shanghai study [31, 32] and might be attributed to the fact that most married nurses in the current study had dependent families, which could create a preference for stability.

Nurses’ level of education was also statistically significant in that nurses who had a bachelor degree in nursing were two times more likely to stay in their profession than nurses who had diploma in nursing. This finding is in contrast to similar studies conducted in Canada [24] and South Africa [16] in which nurses with a diploma were more likely to report intent to stay in their profession than those with a bachelor degree. One possible explanation for this difference might be a contextual difference of the study settings. In the current study setting, there were fewer baccalaureate prepared nurses in the majority of hospitals and most were working as head nurses. Therefore, they may experience greater autonomy and higher job satisfaction compared to the diploma nurses. Moreover, currently nursing education opportunities are relatively better for bachelor nurses than for diploma nurses in the study areas so that bachelor nurses may have a desire to use this opportunity by staying in their profession.

The strongest predictor of intent to stay in the nursing profession in this study was the pay and benefit subscale of job-satisfaction. Nurses who scored as satisfied on pay and benefits were more than eight times more likely to report they intended to stay in their profession than nurses who were unsatisfied. This finding is consistent with previous studies in that job satisfaction has frequently been reported to be the most common predictor for nurses who decided to stay or leave, especially the pay and benefit dimension [12, 15, 33]. Thus, nurses who perceive that the pay and benefits they receive is proportional to the tasks they accomplish may prefer to stay in their profession rather than leave.

In addition, nurses who had high continuance commitment were two times more likely to stay in their profession than nurses who had low continuance commitment. This finding is also in line with previous studies [15]. Continuance commitment refers to an awareness of the costs associated with leaving the organization [11, 20, 23]. Therefore, the current finding could most likely be attributed to the nurses’ perception or feeling towards the limited availability of alternative jobs other than the nursing profession or a belief that other jobs may not fulfil their needs as that of nursing.

In the present research, normative commitment was also found as a statistically significant predictor of intent to stay in the nursing profession. Nurses who had high normative commitment were more than three times more likely to report they intended to stay in their profession than nurses who had low normative commitment. Substantial numbers of previous studies support this finding [11, 20, 34]. Basically normative commitment reflects a feeling of obligation to continue employment. According to previous literatures, the feeling of obligation to remain with an organization may result from familial or cultural socialization which is explained by the internalization of normative pressures exerted on an individual prior to entry into the organization, or it could be the result of organizational socialization that follows entry [20]. However, normative commitment may also develop when an organization provides the employee with prior rewards like paying college fees or covering costs associated with professional training [34], such as the ‘cost-sharing’ policy of Ethiopia in which an agreement is made between the employee and the hospital to pay for the costs of higher education. The other possible explanation might be attributed to the positive feeling of the nurses towards the organization’s visions, missions and values which may lead them to perceive that it is morally correct to stay in their organization as well as in their profession.

The findings of this study also indicated that nurses who were satisfied with autonomy and professional opportunities were two times more likely to report they intended to stay in their profession than those who were unsatisfied. This finding is consistent with other studies in that job satisfaction explained most of the variance in intent to stay [33, 35]. For examples, when nurses have greater autonomy for their decisions and better opportunities for professional growth and development, they may have greater job satisfaction and higher organizational commitment that contributes to their desire to stay in their profession.

In this study, the subscale scheduling was also significantly associated with intent to stay. Nurses who scored as satisfied on scheduling were three times more likely to stay in their profession than nurses who scored as unsatisfied. One possible explanation for this finding might be linked with the influence of scheduling on personal and professional development. When nurses get enough time to accomplish their task, they may use their extra time for personal and professional development and so that they may desire to stay in their profession.

Even though, the study covered all nurses working in all referral hospitals found in Amhara regional state it has the following limitations: First, the cross-sectional nature of the study design does not confirm definitive cause and effect relationship. Second, since self-administer questionnaires were used to collect data; the study may be subjected to response bias from each respondent. Finally, the slightly low reliability of affective and continuance commitment subscales suggests the need for item modification in future research.

Conclusion

Intent to stay in the nursing profession among nurses working in referral hospitals of Amahara regional state is low. The low proportion of nurses who intend to stay in the profession could be a reasonable cause of concern for the regional health bureau and the respective hospital managements to think about the future of the nursing staff. The findings of this study indicate that nurses’ satisfaction with pay and benefits, scheduling, autonomy and professional opportunities, reports of higher normative and continuance commitment, and who have BSc degree in nursing were significantly more likely to report intent to stay in the nursing profession. Therefore, efforts have to be made to increase the professional autonomy of nurses, advance educational opportunities and to make work schedules flexible. Most importantly, revising the current monthly salary and other duty payments of nurses is essential. Future researchers are better to exhaustively address all potential factors associated with intent to stay in the nursing profession with the triangulation of qualitative research methods.

Abbreviations

AC: 

Affective Commitment

CC: 

Continuance Commitment

ITS: 

Intent to Stay

JS: 

Job Satisfaction

NC: 

Normative Commitment

OC: 

Organizational Commitment.

Declarations

Acknowledgments

We would like to acknowledge the University of Gondar for financial support. Our deepest gratitude also goes to S/r Hiwot Kassa, S/r Senafikish Amsalu, Dr Abebaw Gebeyehu and Dr Jodi Ford.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar
(2)
Department of Public Health Officer, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar

References

  1. McEvoy L, Duffy A: Holistic practice – a concept analysis. Nurse Educ Pract. 2008, 8: 412-419.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Nathenson P: Application of Holistic Nursing in the Rehabilitation Setting. Rehabilitation Nursing. 2012, 37 (3): 114-118.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Calzone KA, Cashion A, Feetham S, Jenkins J, Prows CA, Williams JK, Wung S-F: Nurses transforming health care using genetics and genomics. Nurs Outlook. 2010, 58 (1): 26-35.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Amieva S, Ferguson S: Moving forward: nurses are key to achieving the United Nations Development Program’s Millennium Development Goals. Int Nurs Rev. 2012, 59: 55-58.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  5. Buchan J, Aiken L: Solving nursing shortages: a common priority. J Clin Nurs. 2008, 17: 3262-3268.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Scheffler RM, Mahoney CB, Fulton BD, Dal Poz MR, Preker AS: Estimates of health care professional shortages in Sub-Saharan Africa By 2015. Health Aff. 2009, 28 (5): w849-w862.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  7. Lankshear AJ, Sheldon TA, Maynard A: Nurse staffing and healthcare outcomes. Adv Nurs Sci. 2005, 28 (2): 163-174.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  8. Kingma M: Nurses on the move: a global overview. HSR. 2007, 42 (3): 1281-1298.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Brewer CS, Kovner CT, Greene W, Tukov-Shuser M, Djukic M: Predictors of actual turnover in a national sample of newly licensed registered nurses employed in hospitals. J Adv Nurs. 2012, 68 (3): 521-538.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hayes LJ, O’Brien-Pallas L, Duffield C, Shamian J, Buchan J, Hughes F, Laschinger HKS, North N, Stone PW: Nurse turnover: a literature review. Int J Nurs Stud. 2006, 43: 237-263.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Tourangeau AE, Cranley LA: Nurse intension to remain employed: understanding and strengthening determinants. J Adv Nurs. 2006, 55 (4): 497-509.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Kudo Y, Satoh T, Hosoi K, Miki T, Watanabe M, Kido S, Aizawa Y: Association between intention to stay on the job and job satisfaction among Japanese nurses in small and medium-sized private hospitals. J Occup Health. 2006, 48 (6): 504-513.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. McCarthy G, Tyrrell MP, Lehane E: Intention to ‘leave’ or ‘stay’ in nursing. J Nurs Manag. 2007, 15 (3): 248-255.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Wang L, Tao H, Ellenbecker CH, Liu X: Job satisfaction, occupational commitment and intent to stay among Chinese nurses: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. J Adv Nurs. 2012, 68 (3): 539-549.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Wang L, Tao H, Ellenbecker CH, Liu XH: Predictors of hospital nurses’ intent to stay: a cross-sectional questionnaire survey in Shanghai, China. Int Nurs Rev. 2012, 59 (4): 547-554.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Deobelle P, Rawlinson JL, Ntuli S, Malatsi I, Decock R, Depoorter AM: Job satisfaction and turnover intent of primary health care nurses in rural South Africa: a questionnaire survey. J Adv Nurs. 2011, 67 (2): 371-383.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  17. Cowden TL, Cummings GG: Nursing theory and concept development: a theoretical model of clinical nurses’ intentions to stay in their current positions. J Adv Nurs. 2012, 68 (7): 1646-1657.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Liou SR, Grobe SJ: Perception of practice environment, organizational commitment, and intention to leave among Asian nurses working in U.S. hospitals. JNSD. 2008, 24 (6): 276-282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Wagner CM: Organizational commitment as a predictor variable in nursing turnover research: literature review. J Adv Nurs. 2007, 60 (3): 235-247.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Meyer JP, Allen NJ: A three-component conceptualiztion of organizational commitment. Human Resource Mnagement Review. 1991, 1 (1): 61-89.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  21. WeiBo Z, Kaur S, Jun W: New development of organizational commitment: A critical review (1960–2009). African Journal of Business Management. 2010, 4 (1): 012-020.Google Scholar
  22. Mosadeghrad AM, Ferlie E, Rosenberg D: A study of the relationship between job satisfaction, organizational commitment and turnover intention among hospital employees. Health Serv Manag Res. 2008, 21: 211-227.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  23. Bakhshi A, Sharma AD, Kumar K: Organizational Commitment as predictor of Organizational Citizenship Behavior. European Journal of Business and Management. 2011, 3 (4): 78-87.Google Scholar
  24. Sourdis J: Predictors of nurses’ intent to stay at work in a university health center. Nurs Health Sci. 2004, 6: 59-68.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  25. Chan MF, Luk AL, Leong SM, Yeung SM, Van I: Factors influencing Macao nurses’ intension to leave current employment. J Clin Nurs. 2008, 18: 893-901.Google Scholar
  26. Jaros S: Meyer and Allen Model of Organizational Commitment: measurement Issues. The Icfai Journal of Organizational Behavior. 2007, 6 (4): 7-26.Google Scholar
  27. Ujvarine AS, Zrinyi M, Toth H, Zekanyne IR, Szogedi I, Betlehem J: Intent to stay in nursing: internal and external migration in Hungary. J Clin Nurs. 2011, 20 (5–6): 882-891.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Lin SY, Chiang HY, Chen Ia L: Comparing nurses’ intent to leave or stay: differences of practice environment perceptions. Nursing & health sciences. 2011, 13 (4): 463-467.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  29. Mariani B: The effect of mentoring on career satisfaction of registered nurses and intent to stay in the nursing profession. Hindawi. 2012, 2012 (168278): 9-Google Scholar
  30. Kim EK, Hwang JI: Characteristics associated with intent to stay among Quality Improvement nurses. Int Nurs Rev. 2011, 58 (1): 89-95.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Liu C, Zhang L, Ye W, Zhu J, Cao J, Lu X, Li F: Job satisfaction and intension to leave: a questionnaire survey of hospital nurses in Shanghai of China. J Clin Nurs. 2011, 21: 255-263.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. El-Jardali F, Murray SF, Dimassi H, Jamal D, AbuAlRub R, Al-Surimi K, Clinton M, Dumit NY: Intention to stay of nurses in current posts in difficult-to-staff areas of Yemen, Jordan, Lebanon and Qatar: a cross-sectional study. Int J Nurs Stud. 2013, 50 (11): 1481-1494.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Zangaro GA, Soeken KL: A meta-analysis of studies of nurses’ job satisfaction. Research in Nursing & Health. 2007, 30: 445-458.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  34. Liou SR: Nurses’ intention to leave: critically analyse the theory of reasoned action and organizational commitment model. J Nurs Manag. 2009, 17 (1): 92-99.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. El-Jardali F, Dimassi H, Dumit N, Jamal D, Mouro G: A national cross-sectional study on nurses’ intent to leave and job satisfaction in Lebanon: implications for policy and practice. BMC Nurs. 2009, 8: 3-View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Pre-publication history

    1. The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6955/13/24/prepub

Copyright

© Engeda et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

Advertisement