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Table 1 CPR performance variables with and without feedback (Mean ± SEM [95% Confidence Interval])

From: A counterbalanced cross-over study of the effects of visual, auditory and no feedback on performance measures in a simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Quality of CPR Indicator N = 15 No feedback Auditory Feedback Visual Feedback
Percent Correct Compressions [correct depth, rate, and release] 44.5 ± 8.1a (27.1-61.8) 65.4 ± 7.6 (40.1-72.7) 78.1 ± 8.2 (60.4-95.7)
N who achieved 90% or better 2 (13%) 1 (6%) 9 (60%)
Average Rate of Compressions [number per minute] 96.5 ± 0.7 (95.2-97.8) 87.9 ± 0.5 b (86.9-88.9) 94.9 ± 0.7 (93.5-96.4)
N with rate between 90 and 120 c 8 (53%) 8 (53%) 8 (53%)
Percent compressions with 38 or more mm depth 55.5 ± 8.9 d (36.4-74.7) 80.5 ± 6.0 (67.6-93.4) 95.4 ± 1.9 (91.3-99.5)
N who achieved 90% or better 3 (20%) 4 (27%) 13 (86%)
Average depth of compressions (mm) 39.2 ± 0.5 e (35.3-43.1) 41.4 ± 0.3 38.4-44.3) 42.2 ± 0.3 (38.8-45.5)
N who achieved 38-50 mm 9 (60%) 13 (86%) 13 (86%)
Percent compressions without full release of pressure 0.7 ± 0.3 (0.02-1.3) 23.4 ± 6.2f (10.1-36.8) 0.8 ± 0.5 (0.44-2.0)
N with 5% or more of compressions without full release 0 11 (73%) 0
Average duty-cycle 46.1 ± 2.1 (41.5-50.7) 39.4 ± 1.6g (35.9-42.9) 42.5 ± 1.1 (40.2-44.8)
N with range .30-.50 14 (93%) 13 (86%) 15(100%)
  1. a No feedback yielded lower percentage of correct compressions than did visual feedback (p = 0.01).
  2. b Auditory Feedback yielded slower rate than did no and visual feedback (p < 0.05).
  3. c Guidelines recommend 100 per minute [2]; we report range as no one subject delivered exactly 100 compressions per minute.
  4. d No feedback yielded lower percentage of adequate compressions (38-50 mm) than did auditory and visual feedback (p < 0.05).
  5. eNo feedback yielded shallower average depth of compressions than did auditory and visual feedback (p < 0.05).
  6. f Auditory feedback yielded a greater percentage of compressions that were not fully released than did no and visual feedback (p < 0.05).
  7. g Auditory feedback yielded a smaller duty cycle than did no feedback (p < .05).