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Table 5 Overview of main results

From: Preventing falls among older people with mental health problems: a systematic review

Intervention/study Fallers (fell at least once) Rate/number of falls Fall related injuries/fractures Other Quality score
Nursing/residential care: single
Exercise      
Buettner 2002 [28]2 Reduced* ; RR 0.57 95% CI 0.37, 0.89     0/6
Rosendahl 2008 [43]1 No difference; RR 1.04 95% CI 0.78, 1.37 Reduced; IRR 0.82 (0.49-1.39) Hip fractures –Reduced RR 0.16 95% CI 0.01, 3.01   5/6
Social environment
Detweiler 2005 [29]2 Falls (total number): Reduced* P = 0.024    Fall severity – No difference 3/64
Chenoweth 2009 [27]2   DCM v control Reduced* p = 0.02    4/6
PCC v control Increased* p = 0.03
Shimada 2009 (45)1 Reduced* P = 0.012 Reduced * p = 0.046    3/64
Environment/assistive technology
Detweiler 2009 [30]2   Reduced* P = 0.05    2/64
Knowledge
Bouwen 2008 [26]1 Reduced*; RR 0.57 (0.37, 0.89) No difference p = 0.10    4/6
Sensory
Klages 2011 [36]2   No difference; p = 0.47    4/6
Sakamoto 2012 [44]1 Reduced: RR 0.71 95% CI 0.48,1.05 Reduced * IRR 0.57 (95% CI 0.32-0.99)    6/6
Nursing/residential care: multifactorial
Jensen 2003 [35]3 CI: No difference p = .352   Injuries   
CI grp – No difference IRR 0.9 (95% CI 0.5-1.3)
No CI: Reduce d* p = .020
No CI grp – No difference IRR 0.9 (95% CI 0.5-1.5)
Hip fractures
CI group Reduced* p = .006
Neyens 2006 [40]2   Reduced *; RR 0.64 95% CI 0.43, 0.96    4/6
Rapp 2008 [41]3; Becker 20031   Cognitively impaired3 Hip fractures1Increased Time to first fall3 (cognitively impaired versus cognitively intact) – Increased* 5/6
Reduced *; Incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.43 (0.28-0.66) RR 1.11 95% CI 0.49, 2.51
Depression (at least one sign) RR 0.49 95% CI 0.35, 0.69
Reduced; IRR 0.74 (0.51-1.09)
Ray 1997 [42]1    Injurious falls Recurrent fallers – reduced 4/6
Reduced
RR 0.75 95% CI 0.48, 1.17 RR 0.83 95% CI 0.68, 1.02
Shaw 2003 [46]2 Reduced; RR 0.92 95% CI 0.81, 1.05    Fall related A&E admissions – increased 6/6
RR 1.25 95% CI 0.91, 1.72
Hospital: single
Knowledge      
Haines 2011 [33]3 Complete intervention vs control Complete intervention vs control Injuries Cognitively impaired 6/6
Increased Proportion who fell no difference – complete program 26%, control 24%
RR 1.84 95% Cl 0.93, 3.62
Increased; 1.38 (0.70, 2.75) Increased; HR 1.48 (0.86-2.53)
Materials only vs control Materials only vs control
Decreased; OR 0.92 (0.48-1.78) No difference; HR 0.99 (0.55-1.78)
Environment (social)      
Mador 2004 [38]2 Increased; RR 2.43 (0.84-7.03)     4/6
Hospital: multifactorial
Stenvall 2007 [47]1 Reduced*; RR 0.78 (95% CI 0.64, 0.96) Reduced* IRR 0.38 (95% CI 0.20-0.76)1 Injuries & serious injuries   6/6
Reduced* IRR 0.07 (95% CI 0.01-0.57) - PWD Reduced* (p = 0.002, p = 0.055)
Community based: multifactorial
Faes 2011 [32]1 Increased RR 1.39 95% CI 0.66, 2.93 Increased RR 2.12 (95% CI 0.6 – 7.56) p = 0.25    4/6
Mackintosh 2005 [37]2 No difference p = 0.27     3/64
Wesson 2013 [51]2 Reduced; RR 0.50 (95% CI 0.11, 2.19) Reduced: IRR 0.34 (0.06, 1.91)    5/6
Salminen 2009 [43]3   Reduced* in participants with higher N depressive symptoms    5/6
   IRR 0.50 (0.28-0.88)    
  1. *statistically significant.
  2. DCM, dementia care mapping; PCC, person centred care; CI, cognitive impairment; PWD, people with dementia.
  3. 1data presented for whole population (e.g. both cognitively impaired and cognitively intact).
  4. 2Participants all (or most) have mental health problems.
  5. 3data presented for subgroup with mental health problem such as cognitive impairment or depression.
  6. 4Uncontrolled study.