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Table 1 A force field analysis using Lewin's (1951) driving and restraining forces

From: Managing change in the nursing handover from traditional to bedside handover – a case study from Mauritius

DRIVING FORCES RESTRAINING FORCES
• Critical incidents on the increase
• Care given predominantly biomedical in orientation
• Complaints from patients, doctors and relatives on the rise.
• Increase in discharge against medical advice
• Staff knowledgeable in change management
• Ward manager's and peer lending support
• Familiarity with ward culture
• Ritualism and tradition
• Fear that this may lead to more work
• Lack of confidence on the part of some nurses
• Fear of increased accountability
• Problems associated with arriving late at work
• Problems associated with disclosure of confidential information