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Table 4 Mean responses to TPB items and construct scores per behaviour (Pre-implementation n = 88; Post-implementation n = 69)

From: Knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviour intentions for three bowel management practices in intensive care: effects of a targeted protocol implementation for nursing and medical staff

TPB constructs TPB items Assessment of bowel function Performing a PR exam Administration of enema
   Mean(SD) p-values Mean(SD) p-values Mean(SD) p-values
   Pre Post   Pre Post   Pre Post  
Past behaviour Thinking about the last ten ICU patients you have cared for, for how many of them did you perform+ [n = 85] 5.38(3.38) [n = 63] 7.11(3.22) 0.002 [n = 88] 1.81(2.51) [n = 64] 2.45(2.98) 0.161 [n = 84] 2.32(3.37) [n = 58] 2.84(3.72) 0.394
Behaviour Intention# I intend to perform [n = 88] 5.02(1.86) [n = 66] 5.45(1.61) 0.125 [n = 86] 4.70(1.86) [n = 65] 4.75(1.76) 0.850 [n = 88] 5.17(1.56) [n = 66] 5.64(1.29) 0.044
  I will perform [n = 88] 5.02(1.83) [n = 67] 5.25(1.49) 0.388 [n = 85] 5.29(1.75) [n = 66] 5.26(1.58) 0.893 [n = 87] 5.32(1.5) [n = 66] 5.65(1.22) 0.136
  I plan to perform [n = 88] 4.97(1.79) [n = 65] 5.46(1.48) 0.063 [n = 86] 5.05(1.68) [n = 66] 5.12(1.67) 0.785 [n = 85] 5.09(1.62) [n = 65] 5.65(1.27) 0.021
Behaviour Intention (3 item scale) [n = 88] 5.0(1.63) [n = 64] 5.41(1.40) 0.101 [n = 85] 5.02(1.65) [n = 65] 5.03(1.59) 0.970 [n = 85] 5.22(1.43) [n = 65] 5.65(1.17) 0.048
Attitude# In my opinion, performing X is good practice/bad practice [n = 87] 6.15(1.30) [n = 68] 6.09(1.27) 0.768 [n = 83] 5.69(1.34) [n = 65] 5.55(1.38) 0.557 [n = 84] 5.77(1.29) [n = 65] 5.78(1.27) 0.959
  In my opinion, performing X is helpful/unhelpful [n = 81] 5.86(1.47) [n = 66] 5.83(1.38) 0.896 [n = 79] 5.62(1.34) [n = 64] 5.52(1.32) 0.641 [n = 80] 5.75(1.29) [n = 62] 5.71(1.27) 0.852
  In my opinion, performing X is necessary/unnecessary [n = 82] 5.45(1.78) [n = 66] 5.62(1.44) 0.522 [n = 83] 5.39(1.61) [n = 64] 5.22(1.47) 0.515 [n = 81] 5.51(1.42) [n = 62] 5.69(1.33) 0.417
  In my opinion, performing X is satisfying/unsatisfying [n = 78] 4.22(1.87) [n = 65] 4.02(1.88) 0.522 [n = 79] 3.38(1.99) [n = 64] 3.55(2.01) 0.620 [n = 79] 4.54(1.92) [n = 62] 4.05(2.16) 0.158
Attitude (4 item scale) [n = 77] 5.44(1.32) [n = 65] 5.37(1.28) 0.763 [n = 79] 5.02(1.23) [n = 63] 4.97(1.3) 0.798 [n = 79] 5.36(1.24) [n = 62] 5.29(1.26) 0.755
Subjective norms# I feel under social pressure, from my professional colleagues, to perform [n = 85] 2.39(1.63) [n = 68] 3.01(1.75) 0.025 [n = 87] 2.67(1.7) [n = 66] 3.47(1.76) 0.005 [n = 87] 3.31(1.94) [n = 66] 3.82(1.95) 0.112
  People who are important to me professionally, think that I should perform [n = 88] 4.32(1.85) [n = 66] 4.58(1.69) 0.371 [n = 86] 4.44(1.75) [n = 66] 4.45(1.61) 0.963 [n = 86] 4.43(1.64) [n = 66] 4.59(1.70) 0.559
  My professional colleagues, whose opinion I respect, think that I should perform [n = 87] 4.32(1.83) [n = 66] 4.91(1.62) 0.038 [n = 87] 4.51(1.72) [n = 66] 4.45(1.66) 0.852 [n = 85] 4.68(1.59) [n = 65] 4.97(1.50) 0.260
Subjective Norms (3 item scale) [n = 85] 3.62(1.42) [n = 66] 4.18(1.36) 0.016 [n = 86] 3.87(1.41) [n = 66] 4.13(1.37) 0.258 [n = 84] 4.15(1.44) [n = 65] 4.48(1.46) 0.175
Perceived behavioural control - controllability# I have complete control over performing [n = 86] 5.38(1.59) [n = 67] 5.36(1.67) 0.924 [n = 87] 5.15(1.87) [n = 66] 5.47(1.47) 0.238 [n = 88] 5.26(1.62) [n = 66] 5.83(1.21) 0.013
There are factors outside of my control that would prevent me from performing [n = 88] 3.57(1.84) [n = 67] 3.64(2.02) 0.816 [n = 85] 3.80(1.93) [n = 65] 3.57(1.83) 0.455 [n = 85] 3.87(1.86) [n = 65] 4.05(2.07) 0.591
Perceived behavioural control: controllability (2 item scale) [n = 86] 4.49(1.35) [n = 67] 4.5(1.36) 0.979 [n = 85] 4.46(1.44) [n = 65] 4.51(1.32) 0.829 [n = 85] 4.57(1.33) [n = 65] 4.93(1.29) 0.091
Perceived behavioural control – self efficacy# I am confident in knowing when an intensive care patient requires [n = 88] 5.84(1.18) [n = 67] 5.91(1.11) 0.708 [n = 87] 5.77(1.38) [n = 66] 5.79(1.20) 0.932 [n = 86] 5.31(1.61) [n = 65] 5.86(1.18) 0.017
In my opinion, performing X is very easy/very difficult [n = 80] 5.31(1.67) [n = 65] 5.05(1.58) 0.326 [n = 80] 5.20(1.59) [n = 64] 4.83(1.58) 0.163 [n = 81] 5.58(1.4) [n = 62] 5.48(1.40) 0.683
Perceived behavioural control: self-efficacy (2 item scale) [n = 80] 5.54(1.1) [n = 64] 5.44(1.18) 0.603 [n = 80] 5.46(1.26) [n = 64] 5.29(1.22) 0.421 [n = 80] 5.42(1.34) [n = 62] 5.67(1.18) 0.238
Perceived behavioural control (4 item scale) [n = 80] 5.0(0.92) [n = 64] 4.91(0.99) 0.578 [n = 80] 4.94(1.05) [n = 64] 4.88(1.06) 0.758 [n = 79] 4.98(1.08) [n = 62] 5.26(0.97) 0.102
Perceived behavioural control (3 item scale) # [n = 80] 5.34(1.25) [n = 64] 5.33(1.17) 0.967 [n = 80] 5.35(1.25) [n = 62] 5.71(1.06) 0.067
  1. Relevant denominator shown [n = x]; +Based on a possible range of 0–10 indicating the number of patients for which the behaviour has been performed in the past (self-reported measure); #Based on a possible range of 1–7 with higher scores indicating a more positive response; # if delete ‘factors outside my control’ item.