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Table 4 Examples of concepts from the subset; nursing diagnoses, nursing outcomes and nursing interventions

From: The construction of a subset of ICNP® for patients with dementia: a Delphi consensus and a group interview study

Nursing diagnoses Nursing outcomes Nursing interventions
Impaired self-feeding Improved skin Assisting with toileting
Urinary incontinence Integrity Assessing mobility
Diarrhoea Positive appetite Assessing medication side effect
Bowel incontinence Improved status of teeth Assisting with eating or drinking
Nausea Effective self-hygiene Assessing fluid intake
Chronic pain Maintaining effective electrolyte balance Assessing food intake
Impaired self-toileting No pain Facilitating adequate position when sitting/lying down
Impaired fluid intake Improved impaired ability to perform hygiene Assessing oral status
Self-care deficit Improved ability to toilet Assessing ability to swallow
  Self-effective urination  
Acute confusion Improved perception Assessing behaviour
Disuse Dignified dying Assessing discomfort
Chronic confusion None euphoria Calming technique
Impaired orientation Reduced agitation Reinforcing personal identity
Delusion Able to communicate Reminiscence therapy
Despair None despair Assessing cognition
Depressed mood Reduced fear Decreasing noises