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Table 2 The means and standard deviations of the responses on the items

From: Perceptions of the critical cultural competence of registered nurses in Canada

# Items N Mean SD
Critical Awareness
1. Gender can determine the way people relate to others. 168 5.26 1.268
2. Social class is an important factor in determining the way people relate to others. 168 4.56 1.558
3. Gender roles, positions or activities can empower some people over others. 168 5.43 1.207
4. Cultural differences between people can generate conflicts and tensions during interactions. 167 5.67 1.154
5. Cultural differences influence how we interact and relate to others from other cultures. 166 4.96 1.288
6. An interpersonal power imbalance could compromise a healthcare provider’s well-being. 167 5.38 1.230
7. When I interact with people from other cultures, I feel my cultural values and norms are better. 167 5.69 1.366
8. I find it annoying when time is not important for some people from other cultures. 167 4.34 1.413
9. The large number of visitors for patients from other cultures is a nuisance. 167 4.66 1.374
10. Cultural and linguistic differences could compromise healthcare provider’s well-being. 168 4.86 1.598
11. In a multicultural environment, ‘race’ can determine the way people relate to others. 168 4.88 1.299
12. Cultural and linguistic differences between the healthcare provider and patient could compromise patient’s safety. 168 5.42 1.573
Critical Knowledge
13. There are no cultural variations between different cultural groups. [R] 166 6.31 .845
14. There are no cultural variations within a cultural group of people. [R] 166 6.21 .971
15. It is not important to assess a patient’s preferences in terms of healthcare services if I am knowledgeable about their culture. [R] 166 5.70 1.519
16. People from the same culture have the same religion. 169 6.08 .978
17. Western biomedicine is always attentive to diverse cultural meanings. 166 5.02 1.392
18. Cultural norms that people adhere to are largely fixed and unvarying. [R] 166 4.71 1.444
19. It is easy to anticipate behaviors and practices of people if I know their culture. [R] 166 4.14 1.600
Critical Skills
20. I use some of my patients’ languages during my care if I know a little. 166 4.62 1.739
21. I use culturally congruent body language when interacting with people from other cultures. 164 4.49 1.572
22. I am able to change healthcare practices to meet my patients’ cultural and religious needs and expectations. 165 4.38 1.285
23. I discuss the different cultural meanings in terms of health and illness with my patients from other cultures in order to provide them with optimal care. 166 4.03 1.394
24. I use simple language when I speak with people from other cultures and I consider their potential language limitations. 165 5.52 1.167
25. I discuss ethically sensitive issues with my patients/families. 166 3.93 1.324
26. It is not important to assess a patient’s preferences in terms of healthcare services if I am knowledgeable about their culture. 165 6.38 .768
Critical Empowerment
27. I feel disrespected because of my culture. [R] 167 6.01 1.382
28. I face biased remarks and racism. [R] 167 5.71 1.640
29. I feel alienated in my workplace because of my cultural background. [R] 166 6.15 1.239
30. I am treated differently to my counterparts by management because of my cultural background. [R] 167 5.73 1.458
31. I feel disrespected because of my gender. 167 5.60 1.679
32. In this organization, people are treated differently according to their country of origin. [R] 167 5.37 1.573
33. I have an equal opportunity in terms of professional development compared to colleagues in my organization. 167 5.29 1.470
34. My colleagues from other cultures look down on me. [R] 166 6.33 1.086
35. I feel that my colleagues from other cultures are more powerful. [R] 168 5.47 1.484
36. I feel that my skin colour determines how people relate to me in this context. [R] 167 5.25 1.741
37. I have an equal opportunity in terms of promotion compared to colleagues in my organization. 167 5.12 1.536
38. I worry about losing my job if I speak out about my concerns of discrimination. [R] 167 5.14 1.697
39. I feel reluctant to speak out about my conditions of work. [R] 166 5.37 1.630
40. CCC46: My nursing competence is frequently challenged by my colleagues compared to that of my counterparts. [R] 167 5.86 1.303
41. I feel safe in expressing my concerns to management. 167 4.77 1.679
42. My nursing competence is frequently challenged by my patients compared to that of my counterparts. [R] 167 5.80 1.345
43. Social norms limit my ability to advocate for my patients. [R] 168 5.05 1.529