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Table 2 Characteristics of after-hours clinical support team interventions

From: A clinical pathway for the management of difficult venous access

  Males (n = 165) Females (n = 214) Combined (n = 379) p-value
Indication for PIVCa, n (%)
 Medications/Fluids 118 (72) 166 (78) 284 (75) 0.240
 CTb contrast 8 (5) 12 (6) 20 (5)  
 Medical Emergency 2 (1) 2 (1) 4 (1)  
 Blood transfusion 7 (4) 2 (1) 9 (2)  
 Other 30 (18) 32 (15) 62 (16)  
Insertion site, n (%)     0.560
 Basilic 109 (66) 153 (71) 262 (69)  
 Cephalic 16 (10) 18 (8) 34 (9)  
 Medial cubital 22 (13) 22 (10) 44 (12)  
 Antecubital 14 (8) 16 (7) 30 (8)  
Device gage, n (%)     0.400
 20 g PIVC 92 (56) 127 (59) 219 (58)  
 20 g midline 1 (1) 0 (0) 1 (1)  
 18 g PIVC 56 (34) 66 (31) 122 (32)  
 18 g midline 0 (0) 1 (1) 1 (1)  
 22 g PIVC 11 (7) 8 (4) 19 (5)  
 24 g PIVC 0 (0) 2 (1) 2 (1)  
 Other 5 (3) 7 (3) 12 (4)  
First attempts success (%) 153 (95) 195 (92) 348 (93) 0.240
No. of attempts, median (IQR)c
[Range, min – max]d
1 (1,1)
[1, 2]
1 (1,1)
[1, 2]
1 (1,1)
[1, 2]
0.100
Pain score, median (IQR)c
[Range, min - max]
2 (1, 3)
[1,2,3,4,5,6,7]
1 (1,3)
[0–8]
2 (1,3)
[0–8]
0.600
Procedural time in minutes, mean (SD)e 13.6 (5.3) 13.7 (6.4) 13.6 (6.0) 0.850
  1. a PIVC Peripheral intravenous catheter, b CT Computerised tomography, c IQR Inter quartile range d Max – min Maximum – minimum, e SD Standard Deviation