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Table 2 Details of included studies

From: A scoping review of augmented reality in nursing

No. Author Year
Study type and Study objective Methods
a) Use case identification
b) Requirements elicitation
c) Evaluation
Use case description(s) Device used
Device, Technical challenges
Major findings
1 Aldaz et al. 2015 USA - Pilot Study, mixed methods
- Presenting development and assessment of the SnapCap System for chronic wound photography
a) Shadowing, interviews (n = 16)
c) 10–15-min follow-up session and following post-task questionnaire (n = 16)
- Wound care management with smart glasses - GG
- Network connectivity
- Speech recognition
- Hands-free device considered beneficial;
- Barcodes and speech recognition are positive aspects;
- To be considered further: Privacy, camera resolution, speech recognition.
2 Byrne 2017 USA    - Patient’s veins to be more readily visible
- Tools for emergency preparedness and for a wide range of difficult-to-simulate training situations
- Immersion sickness
- Over-reliance on technology
- Lack of attention to surroundings
- Exploration of AR/ VR for anxiety and pain control will increasingly
- have relevance for perianesthesia nurses.
3 Byrne et al. 2017 USA - Pilot study, mixed methods
- Evaluate students’ perceptions related to their experience using GG
c) Survey that contained 9 questions that used a 4-point Likert scale and two open-ended narrative questions (n = 11) - Information retrieval and communication in teaching - GG - GG overall helpful;
- Benefits: Time savings, easy information retrieval;
- To be considered further: Nurse may focus on the device instead of the patient.
4 Ehrler et al. 2015 Switzerland - Pilot study, qualitative methods
- Presenting a solution enabling the display of care protocols through GG
b) User centred design, interviews and observations (n = 3) - Intravenous injection of a drug to a patient
- Step by step guidance
- GG;
- Autofocus;
- Screen resolution;
- Voice recognition
- Valuable experience about the use of GG for the display of guidelines in healthcare settings;
- GG usage overall positive.
5 Ehrler et al. 2016 Switzerland - Qualitative study
- Presenting transformation of clinical guidelines into a representation that can be used on GG
b) Focus group and observations (n = 3) - Development of guidelines to display the pediatric cardiac arrest algorithm for support to provide guidelines at point of care - GG,
- Screen size
- Guidelines are developed;
- Next step: Guidelines have to be evaluated.
6 Frost et al. 2017 (Australia)    - Nursing education; - HoloLens - Can be used to guide clinical assessment as a means to integrate knowledge to formulate plans of care and develop clinical reasoning skills.
7 Fumagalli et al. 2016 Italy - Pilot study; quantitative methods
- Comparison of efficacy and safety of Near-infrared electromagnetic radiation based devices with the standard technique in elderly patients
c) Mini Mental State Examination, Visual Analogue Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (n = 103) - Intensive care unit;
- Support of blood sampling with tablet application to visualize veins
- Novel devices based on the emission of near-infrared electromagnetic radiation;
- No technical challenges described
- No difference in number of attempts and time;
- Lower anxiety and depression of the patient.
8 Garrett et al. 2015 Canada - Pilot study, mixed methods
- Exploration if new mobile AR technologies have the potential to enhance the learning of clinical skills in the lab
c) Online evaluation questionnaire (n = 72), focus group interviews (n = 6) - Clinical lab equipment explanations through usage of bar codes/QR codes
- AR resources were integrated into a clinical simulation scenario
- Smartphones and Tablets (iPad)
- Response times;
- Incompatible smartphones;
- Scanning;
- Internet connection;
- Stability of application
- Use of AR demonstrated some potential;
- Further integration and evaluative work warranted.
9 González et al.
2014 Mexico
- Pilot study, quantitative methods
- Propose smart multi-level tool for remote patient monitoring
c) Comparative trials (n = 10; 50 diagnoses) - Remote monitoring of body temperature and heart rate by wireless sensor network and mobile AR - Arduino microcontroller;
- PCs;
- Smartphones
- Sensors
- Decreased time needed to monitor patients;
- Automatic diagnosis in real time
- Remote alarm generation;
- Generation of virtual files.
10 Grünerbl et al. 2015 UK - Pilot study, quantitative methods
- Monitoring and Enhancing Nurse Emergency Training with Wearable Devices
c) Evaluation of recorded localization data by an expert; not further specified (n = 7) - Augment training scenario to give better feedback to learners - GG, Smart Watch; - Significant amount of information about relevant activity and cooperation patterns is contained in the data;
- Further research necessary.
11 Klinker et al.
2017 Germany
- Pilot study, mixed methods
- Presenting a preliminary design
b) Design Science Research Method (three iterations); System Usability Scale + open questions + verbal comments (n = 39; n = 9; n = 14) - Serious game to improve hand hygiene - Microsoft HoloLens - Presentation of a novel approach by employing serios game with paralles to health care workers daily routine
12 Kopetz et al.
2018 Germany
- Quantitative study
- Presentation of method and results
a) Online survey (n = 107) - Practical education of nurses; Scenario: transfer from bed to wheelchair   - AR may have advantages for nursing education (individuality, vizualization);
- (Potential) Users must be convinced gradually.
13 Mentler et al. 2016 Germany - Qualitative study
- Discussing optical head-mounted displays with respect to humancomputer interaction
a) Literature review and interviews (> 25)
c) Observation and interviews 1) n = 14; 2) n = 14; 3) n = 12; 4) n = 2)
- Supporting triage process in mass casualty incidents
- Identifying dangerous goods
- Coordinating duration of infusions
- Picture based documentation of surgery Device: GG
- GG
- Image quality
- Great interest in optical smart glasses;
- Efficient and safe usage seems possible;
- Current workflows can be improved;
- To be improved: Technical reliability and features (e.g. camera quality); Attention is needed to perform hands-free interaction with an application.
14 Nilsson & Johansson 2007 Sweden - Mixed methods study
- Discussing usability and user acceptance aspects of an AR system from a Cognitive Systems Engineering perspective
c) Observations and quantitative questionnaire (n = 12) - AR instructions on how to assemble a common medical device - Head Mounted Display;
- Marker problems
- Users are positive towards AR systems for instructions;
- AR may become an accepted part of everyday work;
- System is fun to use;
- Possibility to get objective information in an easy way
15 Nilsson & Johansson 2008 Sweden - Pilot study, mixed methods
- Test AR in real world scenarios
b) Instructions received were developed with the model of an operating room nurse
c) Observation (n = 8) and open ended questionnaires (n = 12)
- Instructions on how to interact with a diathermy apparatus
- Instructions how to assemble a trocar Device: Helmet Mounted Display
- Helmet Mounted Display (Sony Glasstron);
- Bulky helmet;
- Marker problems;
- Parallax vision
- Interactivity seems to be important for an AR system;
- Users would prefer the possibility to ask the system random questions;
- Objectivity of instructions made by the system was mentioned positively.
16 Pugoy et al.
Philipines and Thailand
- Pilot study, quantitative methods
- Provide a proof of concept for budget constrained and technologically challenged implementers
c) SUS + 3 additional questions (n = 17) - Improve the English communication skills of nursing professionals - Mobile device - AR can be used by budget constrained and technologically challenged implementers from developing countries
17 Rahn & Kjaergaard
2014 Denmark
- Mixed method study
- Investigation of potentials of AR as an educational technology.
c) Filmed processes analyzed through meaning condensation (n =?); evaluative questionnaires (n = 14) - AR in the teaching of highly complex anatomical and physiological subjects in the training of nurses at undergraduate level - iPad,
- APP has to be dependable
- The use of AR does appear to have the potential to facilitate student learning and increase their level of understanding of the subject matter at hand;
- Students can see potential in the use of AR in their future education.
18 Rochlen et al. 2017 USA - Pilot study, mixed methods
- Evaluating usability and feasibility
c) Survey describing their perceptions (n = 40) - A 1st person point of view AR trainer on needle insertion - Epson Moverio BT-200® Smart Glasses - First person point of view AR technology is a potentially promising training tool for central line placement.
19 Samosky et al.
2012 (USA)
- Prototype description
- Present novel features of the Body ExplorerAR platform
  - Education for healthcare, enhance mannequin with additional information - Projector, Wiimote, IR Light Pen - Provides a testbed for AR enhancements.
20 Schneidereith
2015 USA
- Qualitative study
- Describe errors in medication administration identified through usage of GG
c) Review of GG videos; Method is not described (n = 10) - Observation of students when performing medication tasks through their perspective to identify mistakes - GG,
- Network connectivity
- Identification of mistakes made by students is easy and can be used to improve teaching plans.
21 Vaughn et al. 2016 USA - Pilot study, Mixed methods study
- Describing the pilot study
c) 2 experts evaluated students skill + survey based on Simulation Design Scale and Self-Confidence in Learning scale (n = 15) - Project video into students’ vision to increase the perception of realism - AR Headset,
- Connectivity issues,
- Lack of experience with system,
- Battery life
- Using the device supported simulation;
- The simulation gave the students confidence;
- Barriers were related to lack of experience with the device;
- Due to the concentration on the system other hints may be missed;
- 80% of the students would recommend using the technology.
22 Yoshida et al. 2015 Japan - Pilot study, quantitative methods
- (Prospective) Evaluation of the usefulness of seethrough–type head-mounted display as a novel intraoperative instructional tool for scrub nurses.
c) Self-made questionnaire (n = 15) - Showing the operation procedure to scrub nurses to enhance situation awareness - Head mounted display;
- Mild headache
- Mild dizziness
- Mild eye fatigue
- Use of Head-Mounted Display by scrub nurses could facilitate their understanding of operation procedure.
23 Wüller et al.
2018 Germany
- Pilot study, qualitative methods
- explore situational change and further use cases for AR in nursing
b) Design science research method
c) semi-structured interviews (n = 5)
- Wound care management with smart glasses - Smart Glass - benefits regarding accuracy of wound documentation are expected
- communication with patient was experienced as more challenging