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Table 3 Frequency of correctly answered questions (N = 126)

From: Emergency nurses´ knowledge, attitude and perceived barriers regarding pain Management in Resource-Limited Settings: cross-sectional study

Question Items (Knowledge and Attitude)N (%)
Least answered items (< 50%)
 32BYour assessment for Andrew is made two hours after he received morphine 2 mg IV. Half hourly pain ratings following the injection ranged from 6 to 8 and he had no clinically significant respiratory depression, sedation, or other untoward side effects. Check the action you will take now.10 (7.9)
 30Following abrupt discontinuation of opioid, physical dependence is manifested by the following:17 (13.5)
 33BYour assessment, for Robert, is made two hours after he received morphine 2 mg IV. Half hourly pain ratings following the injection ranged from 6 to 8 and he had no clinically significant respiratory depression, sedation, or other untoward side effects. Check the action you will take now23 (18.3)
32AAndrew is 25 years old and this is his first day following abdominal surgery. He smiles at you and continues talking and joking with his visitor. He rates his pain as 8. Circle the number that represents your assessment of Andrew’s pain.27 (21.4)
 4Patients may sleep despite severe pain31 (24.6)
 23A 50-mg dose of IV pethidine is approximately equivalent to33 (26.2)
 28How likely is it that patients who develop pain already have an alcohol and/or drug abuse problem?40 (31.7)
 16If the source of the patient’s pain is unknown, opioids should not be used during the pain evaluation period, as this could mask the ability to diagnose the cause of pain correctly.42 (33.3)
 10Elderly patients cannot tolerate opioids for pain relief43 (34.1)
 17Anticonvulsant drugs such as Carbamazepine produce optimal pain relief after a single dose44 (34.9)
 15Giving patients sterile water by injection (placebo) is a useful test to determine if the pain is real.47 (37.3)
 24Analgesics for postoperative pain should initially be given48 (38.1)
 8The usual duration of analgesia of 1–2 mg morphine IV is 4–5 h.52 (41.3)
 12Children less than 11 years old cannot reliably report pain so clinicians should rely solely on the parent’s assessment of the child’s pain intensity.52 (41.3)
 9Opioids should not be used in patients with a history of substance abuse56 (44.4)
 33ARobert is 25 years old and this is his first day following abdominal surgery. As you enter his room, he is lying quietly in bed and grimaces as he turns in bed. He rates his pain as 8. Circle the number that represents your assessment of Robert’s pain56 (44.4)
 27Which of the following describes the best approach for cultural considerations in caring for patients in pain?57 (45.2)
 11Patients should be encouraged to endure as much pain as possible before using an opioid58 (46.0)
 1Vital signs are always reliable indicators of the intensity of a patient’s pain62 (49.2)
Items received 50 to 80% correct answers
 25The most likely reason a patient with pain would request increased doses of pain medication is65 (51.6)
 3Patients who can be distracted from pain usually do not have severe pain.67 (53.2)
 13Patients’ spiritual beliefs may lead them to think pain and suffering are necessary.68 (54.0)
 7Combining analgesics that work by different mechanisms (e.g., combining a NSAID with an opioid) may result in better pain control with fewer side effects than using a single analgesic agent.69 (54.8)
 26The most accurate judge of the intensity of the patient’s pain is74 (58.7)
 6Respiratory depression rarely occurs in patients who have been receiving stable doses of opioids over a period of months.77 (61.1)
 18Benzodiazepines are not effective pain relievers and are rarely recommended as part of an analgesic regiment.78 (61.9)
 2Because their nervous system is underdeveloped, children under two years of age have decreased pain sensitivity and limited memory of painful experiences.83 (65.9)
 5Aspirin and other Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents are Not effective analgesics for musculoskeletal pain87 (69.0)
 31Which statement is true regarding opioid induced respiratory depression?92 (73)
 29The time to peak effect for morphine given IV is94 (74.6)
Most Answered Items (> 80)
 14After an initial dose of opioid analgesic is given, subsequent doses should be adjusted in accordance with the individual patient’s response.102 (81.0)
 19Narcotic/opioid addiction is defined as a chronic neurobiological disease, characterized by behaviours that include one or more of the following: impaired control over drug use, compulsive use, continued use despite harm, and craving.102 (81.0)
 22The recommended route administration of opioid analgesics for patients with brief, severe pain of sudden onset such as trauma or postoperative107 (84.9)
 21Sedation assessment is recommended during opioid pain management because excessive sedation precedes opioid-induced respiratory depression.108 (85.7)
 20The term ‘equianalgesia’ means approximately equal analgesia and is used when referring to the doses of various analgesics that provide approximately the same amount of pain relief.112 (88.9)
  1. These items were adopted from Ferrell et al [21] with permission from the owners