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Table 7 Perceived Barriers to Pain Management in relation to Selected Nurses’ Demographic Characteristics (n = 126)

From: Emergency nurses´ knowledge, attitude and perceived barriers regarding pain Management in Resource-Limited Settings: cross-sectional study

VariablesN (%)Mean ± SDF or tp-value
Previous training  t = 0.5210.604
dYes40 (31.7)41.0 ± 12.6  
eNo86 (68.3)39.8 ± 11.6  
Educational level  F = 0.9960.372
aCertificate49 (38.9)39.6 ± 12.2  
bDiploma50 (39.7)39.3 ± 12.0
cBachelor27 (21.4)43.1 ± 10.5
Emergency work experience  F = 0.0650.978
  ≤ 1253 (42.1)40.1 ± 12.2  
 13–3640 (31.7)39.7 ± 12.9  
 37–6022 (17.5)40.8 ± 9.7  
  ≥ 6111 (8.7)41.2 ± 11.6  
Nursing work experience  F = 1.7380.146
  ≤ 2439 (31.0)38.4 ± 13.98  
 25–4831 (24.6)42.8 ± 10.7  
 49–7221 (16.7)43.3 ± 8.3  
 73–9616 (12.7)35.1 ± 11.8  
  ≥ 9719 (15.1)40.4 ± 11.4  
Age in months  F = 0.7120.547
  < 2542 (33.3)38.0 ± 13.6  
 25–2944 (34.9)41.4 ± 11.2  
 30–3421 (16.7)38.8 ± 10.4  
  ≥ 3519 (15.1)42.5 ± 11.0  
Gender  t = 0.0130.909
 Male76 (60.3)40.1 ± 12.0  
 Female50 (39.7)40.3 ± 11.8  
  1. aNurse assistants with 1–2 years of training, bRegistered nurses with three years of training, cNurse practitioners with four years of training, dThey had short term or long-term training regards pain either in a college or in a hospital, eThey had no training regarding pain