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Table 2 Perpetrators and health consequences of sexual harassment on female nurses

From: Sexual harassment against female nurses: a systematic review

Author/Year Perpetrators Consequences of sexual harassment
Othman et al., 2018 [21] Headache on 57.5%, fatigue on 56.67%, difficult sleep on 54.17%,
Nightmare on 48.33%, and loss of appetite on 35% of nurses
Stomach pain, weight gain, weight loss, disturbances of the menstrual cycle, muscular spasm or convulsions, and gastric ulcer disease or hypertensive.
Fatema, 2017 [22] Feeling of sadness on 54%, loss of self-confidence on 25%, crying for no reason on 35% and
Social isolation on 22%. Uncontrolled ferociousness on 19%, trouble in emotional relationships on 27%, and bitterness on 48%.
Hussein et al., 2015 [23] 43.30% patient /family 30% follow nurse 26.70% doctors Anxiety (Mean 41.27 ± 6.12) z = 3.85, p = 0.000
Depression (Mean 33.40 ± 4.44) z = 2.10, p = 0.036
Ali et al., 2015 [24] 42.70% patients
61.90% patients’ family
12.90% doctors
45.40% staff
Felt anger on 37.10%
Felt shame on 30.40%
Psychological in general on 94.7%
Disappointment on 76.50%
Depression on 67.90%, and fear on 35.80%
Mushtaq et al. 2015 Depression, anxiety, stress
Khan et al.,2015 [25] 55.3% patients/visitors
25.3% physicians
4.7% colleague nurses
14.7% administration
Psychological in general on 50.7%
Physical health in general on 8%
Park et al., 2015 [27] 55.5% patients
15.2% patient family
34.6% physicians
2.6% colleague nurses
1.6% nurse managers
Subedi et al., 2013 [28] 18.52% patients
25.93% patient relatives
37.03% physician
11.11% administrative staff
Suhaila & Rampal, 2012 [29] Patients
Patients’ relatives
Colleagues
Medical Officers
Psychological effects in general on74.70%.
Fear on 80.30%, depression on 26.6%, loss of appetite on 8.60%, nausea on 7.70%, and fatigue on 1.30%.
Shiao et al., 2010 [30] Psychiatry patients Night shift had negative effects on the score of general health (Coef-6, SE = 2.7 p = 0.03)
Working in a psychiatric hospital was positively associated with scores in mental health (Coef 2.7,SE = 0.6 p < 0.0001)
Working in psychiatry hospital was vitality, was negatively associated with these scores (Coef 1.7,SE = 0.7 p < 0.0110)
Hibino et al., 2009 [31, 34] Patients
Celik & Celik 2007 [32] 43.30% patients
34.20% attendants
77.10% physicians
51.10% nurses
29.4% other personnel
Disturbed mental health on 44.6%
Physical problem in general on 24.20%
Sleeping difficulty on 24.20%, headache on 40.30%, stomach ache on 17.30%, negative social and family relations on 36.80%, disturbed family life on 27.30%, being tired on 14.30%, fear on 23.4%, helplessness on 17.30%, depression on 10.80%, belittlement or humiliation on 10.8%.
Gunnarsdottir et al., 2006 [33] Psychological wellbeing affected
Hibino et al., 2006 [31, 34] 94% male patients
Kisa et al., 2002 [35] 39% patients
17% relatives of patient
41% physicians
4% other hospital staffs
Emotional reactions -Anger on 42.9%, fear on 11.4%, helpless on 8.2%, depression on 6.9%, feelings of humiliation on 10.5%, guilt/self-blame on 6.2%.
Physical symptoms: Headaches on 37.7%, Dizziness on 2%, gastritis on 12.9%, nausea and/or vomiting on 2.4%, exhaustion on 12.9%, menstrual disturbances on 2%, inability to sleep on 20.2% and sleep more on 3.2%.
Matsuoka et al., 2001 [36] Mental problem on 41%.
Shaikh, 2000 [37] 2.80% male patients
11.27% male attendants
26.90% male physicians
Kisa & Dziegielewski,1996 34% patients
14% relatives of patients
44% physicians
9% other perpetrators
Emotional effects -Anger on 44%, feelings of humiliation on 14%, fear on 12%, guilt on 9%, and depression on 5% and helplessness on 5%.
physical symptoms: Headaches on 38%, inability to sleep on 20%, feelings of exhaustion on 15%,gastritis on 14%, nausea and/or vomiting on 4%, tendency to sleep more than usual on 1%, dizziness on 1%, and menstrual disturbances on 1%.
Dan et al.,1995 [38] 75% patients
73% visitors
88.5% physicians
83% coworkers
Emotional condition on 47.4%.
Physical condition on 11.1%.
Libbus & Bowman,1994 [40] 53.5% patients
5.4% patients’ family
25% physicians
12.5% non-nurse staff
3.6% nurses
Emotional responses on 70.5% (Anger on 23.6%), embarrassment on 19.6%, disgust on 19.6%, nervousness on 18.20%.