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Table 4 Association between student demographics, clinical experience and mean score of first three dimensions of CLES + T

From: Clinical learning environment of nursing and midwifery students in Ghana

Dimension Mean (SD) Test statistic
Pedagogical atmosphere
Method of supervision
  Unsuccessful supervision 3.06 (0.81) F = 5.07, p = 0.007
  Team supervision 3.37 (0.66)
  Successful supervision 3.56 (0.76)
Frequency of private contact with supervisor
  Not at all 3.17 (0.76) F = 5.45, p <  0.001
  Once or twice during the course 3.32 (0.65)
  Less than once a week 2.70 (0.60)
  About once a week 3.64 (0.55)
  More often 3.60 (0.63)
Leadership style of the ward manager
Method of supervision
  Unsuccessful supervision 3.39 (0.84) F = 3.86, p = 0.023
  Team supervision 3.72 (0.84)
  Successful supervision 3.75 (0.91)
Premise of nursing on the ward
Programme of study
  BSc. Nursing 3.09 (0.93) t = −2.23, p = 0.027
  BSc. Midwifery 3.39 (0.96)
Frequency of private contact with supervisor
  Not at all 3.10 (0.93) F = 3.13, p = 0.016
  Once or twice during the course 3.14 (0.98)
  Less than once a week 2.73 (0.84)
  About once a week 3.35 (0.97)
  More often 3.70 (0.81)