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Table 1 Characteristic of hospital/wards, ward manager, and staff nurses (n = 247)

From: Management of constipation in long-term care hospitals and its ward manager and organization factors

 n (%) 
Mean ± SDRange
Characteristic of hospital and wards
 Hospital ownership
  Public interest corporations26 (10.7) 
  Social welfare corporations2 (0.8) 
  Medical corporations195 (80.6) 
  Others19 (7.9) 
 Total number of hospital beds166.3 ± 106.7〔31–920〕
 Total number of beds in the ward47.4 ± 10.6〔9–94〕
 Average length of stay323.5 ± 329.3〔18–1837〕
 Bed occupancy rate88.7 ± 13.8〔15–100〕
 Number of hospitalized patients per ward42.0 ± 11.7〔7–90〕
 Full-time staff rate
  RNs/RNs + LPNs0.7 ± 0.2〔0.2–1〕
  RNs + LPNs+CW/total number of beds in the ward0.5 ± 0.1〔0.1–0.9〕
  RNs + LPNs/RNs + LPNs+CW0.3 ± 0.9〔0.1–0.6〕
 Charged hospitalization basic rate
  Type 1 (> 80% high medical acuity patient)166 (73.8) 
  Type 2 (> 50% high medical acuity patient)49 (21.8) 
  Interim measure 110 (4.4) 
 Number of patients using a diaper34.9 ± 13.4〔0–62〕
 Number of patients receiving nutrition through a GFT16.8 ± 10.8〔0–58〕
 Number of patients receiving TPN6.9 ± 8.7〔0–48〕
 Organizational system of CM
  Certified Nurse in WOCN26 (10.6) 
  Staff participation in in-hospital study sessions82 (10.7) 
  Staff participation in out-hospital study sessions57 (33.5) 
  Case conference for CM in unit124 (23.4) 
  Committee or group that focus on CM22 (8.9) 
  Creating nursing care plans for CM128 (54.5) 
 Organizational climate of learning atmosphere9.1 ± 2.2〔4–15〕
Characteristics of the ward managers
 Age51.4 ± 7.8〔28–67〕
 Sex (female)236 (95.5) 
 Qualifications (RN)244 (98.8) 
 Years working in the current hospital17.1 ± 9.8〔1–49〕
 Years working in the current wards6.0 ± 5.7〔0–35〕
 Years working as a current ward manager4.0 ± 3.9〔0–18〕
 Past workplace experience
  Visiting nurse28 (11.7) 
  Nurse in a general or university hospital145 (60.7) 
  Long-term care health facility nurse23 (9.7) 
 Educational opportunities of CM
  In-hospital study session124 (52.3) 
  Out-hospital study session85 (35.9) 
  Book or magazine149 (62.9) 
  An academic conference24 (10.2) 
 Knowledge of stimulant laxatives3.1 ± 0.6〔2–4〕
 Perception of CM
  Beliefs regarding use of laxatives2.3 ± 0.7〔1–4〕
  Preference of using laxatives3.1 ± 0.7〔1–4〕
Staff nurse characteristics
 Age45.6 ± 9.2〔22–65〕
 Sex (female)233 (94.3) 
 Qualifications (RN)211 (85.4) 
 Years working in the current hospital13.0 ± 9.4〔0.5–45〕
 Years working in the current wards5.2 ± 5.1〔0–30〕
  1. Note: Missing data were excluded from this analysis and percentages for each item were calculated after excluding missing values. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, RN registered nurse, LPN licensed practical nurse, CW care worker, GFT gastric feeding tube, TPN total parenteral nutrition, CM constipation management, WOCN wound, ostomy and continence nursing