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Table 1 Self-management indicators

From: Evaluating the effectiveness and feasibility of nurse-led distant and face-to-face interviews programs for promoting behavioral change and disease management in patients with diabetic nephropathy: a triangulation approach

StageDietExerciseSelf-monitoringMedication (frequency of behavior)
1
Precontemplation
The participant does not intend to start dietary therapy or change current eating habits.
The participant has no knowledge of dietary therapy.
The participant does not intend to start physical exercise.
The participant has no knowledge of exercise therapy (balance between exercise and rest).
The participant does not perform any self-monitoring.The participant takes or injects medication when they remember it (approximately 1 to 2 days a month).
2
Contemplation
The participant is interested in dietary therapy and tries to understand, but has not started yet.The participant is interested in exercise therapy (balance between exercise and rest) and tries to understand, but has not started yet.The participant is interested in monitoring and tries to understand, but has not started it.The participant takes or injects medication 1 to 2 days a week.
3
Preparation
The participant understands the problems with current eating habits.
The participant has started to take action.
The participant has started to perform some exercise (balance between exercise and rest).The participant can measure and record the parameters properly.The participant takes or injects medication 3 to 4 days a week.
4
Action
The participant understands the instructed food intake.
The participant can plan improvements and act with advice from others.
The participant understands the proper amount and timing of physical exercise.
The participant can plan improvements and act with advice from others.
The participant understands the monitoring instructions of the physician.
The participant can analyze the measurement and modify treatment based on advice from others.
The participant takes or injects medication 5 to 6 days a week.
5
Maintenance
Continuing dietary therapy
The participant can plan to improve the diet and act autonomously.
Continuing exercise therapy
The participant can plan to improve exercise and act autonomously
Continuing monitoring
The participant can analyze the measurement and modify treatment autonomously.
The participant takes or injects medication almost every day.
The participant can take the necessary action when a dose is missed.
6Participant not in the program for medical reasons (fasting, parenteral nutrition)Physical exercise is prohibitedThe participant cannot perform self-monitoring (e.g., cervical vertebral injury)Not prescribed