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Table 3 Comparison of efficacy (difference in percent change) in indicators between the groups

From: Evaluating the effectiveness and feasibility of nurse-led distant and face-to-face interviews programs for promoting behavioral change and disease management in patients with diabetic nephropathy: a triangulation approach

VariableIntervention group (n = 17)Control group (n = 15)Adjusted mean difference between the groups (95% CI)b
nBaseline6 monthsMean percent change (%)anBaseline6 monthsMean percent change (%)a
Self-management behaviors
 Dietary stage172.7±0.63.9±1.054.9±52.6152.4±0.83.9±0.590.0±99.2−15.78(−56.16 to 24.60)
 Exercise stage172.9±0.73.8±1.029.9±31.3142.7±1.13.6±0.948.9±54.4With interaction
 Self-monitoring stage172.4±0.64.1±0.781.4±51.7152.0±1.33.9±0.8166.1±138.6−50.29(−93.97 to − 6.61)
 medication/injection stage174.4±0.64.9±0.313.0±19.9144.9±0.35.0±0.01.8±6.7−3.50(−8.92 to 1.92)
Clinical indicators
 eGFR (ml/min/1.73m2)1250.3±12.153.2±13.45.9±8.7861.2±20.262.4±23.31.1±14.55.51(−6.05 to 17.06)
 HbA1c (%)167.7±1.67.3±1.4−4.2±6.5127.8±1.17.2±1.0−7.2±8.92.75(−2.95 to 8.45)
 Systolic BP (mmHg)17138.2±14.0133.8±10.9−2.7±7.615147.7±17.2127.3±11.9−13.0±10.76.44(1.30 to 11.58)
 Diastolic BP (mmHg)1784.5±10.080.1±7.6−4.5±10.81587.8±9.579.3±6.3−8.6±13.31.04(−4.88 to 6.96)
 BMI (kg/m2)1729.7±4.429.1±4.5−2.2±2.31526.0±4.325.6±4.0−1.5±3.2−0.21(−2.40 to 1.98)
Psychological indicators
 Self-efficacy scorec1170.4±11.074.4±9.86.5±9.11375.0±9.978.5±9.15.3±10.3−1.38(−8.52 to 5.76)
 QOL scored112.78±0.564.27±0.5658.5±32.7132.35±0.903.81±0.7282.4±63.80.84(−23.86 to 25.5)
  1. There were no significant differences in the baseline of self-management indicators between the two groups
  2. Definition of abbreviations: eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, BP blood pressure, BMI body mass index, QOL quality of life
  3. aMean percent change (%) = (6 months - Baseline) /(Baseline * 100)
  4. bAnalysis of covariance adjusted for baseline data
  5. cSelf-efficacy score: 24–96 points, with a higher score indicating greater self-efficacy
  6. dQOL score: 1–5 points, with a higher score indicating better QOL