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Table 2 Descriptive Statistics of Delirium Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ) in Nursing Students Pre/Post-Test (n = 298)

From: Evaluation of a delirium awareness podcast for undergraduate nursing students in Northern Ireland: a pre−/post-test study

DKQ Item Pre-Test Score
(% Correct Answers)
Post-Test Score
(% Correct Answers)
+/− Difference
(% Correct Answers)
A. Items related to knowledge about the presentation, symptoms, and outcomes of delirium
1. Fluctuation between orientation and disorientation is a typical feature of delirium (T) 96.64% 99.26% +  2.62%
2. Symptoms of depression may mimic delirium (T) 78.04% 93.63% +  15.59%
3. Patients never remember episodes of delirium (F) 77.70% 90.60% +  12.90%
4. Delirium never lasts for more than a few hours (F) 94.93% 96.22% +  1.29%
5. A patient who is lethargic and difficult to rouse does certainly not have a delirium (F) 88.85% 96.60% +  7.75%
6. Patients with delirium are always physically and/or verbally aggressive (F) 95.95% 97.74% +  1.79%
7. Patients with delirium have a higher mortality rate (T) 62.16% 92.08% +  29.92%
8. Behavioural changes in the course of the day are typical of delirium (T) 94.58% 96.96% +  2.38%
9. A patient with delirium is likely to be easily distracted and/or have difficulty following a conversation (T) 96.27% 98.48% +  2.21%
10. Patients with delirium will often experience perceptual disturbances (e.g. visual and/or auditory hallucinations) (T) 98.31% 99.62% +  1.31%
Section A Overall Score 88.34% 96.12% 7.78%
B. Items related to knowledge about causes and risk factors of delirium
11. A patient admitted with pneumonia and having diabetes, visual and auditory disturbances has the same risk for delirium as a patient admitted with pneumonia without co-morbidities (T) 71.53% 75.67% +  4.14%
12. The risk for delirium increases with age (T) 82.71% 97.35% +  14.64%
13. A patient with impaired vision is at increased risk of delirium (T) 38.98% 82.13% +  43.15%
14. The greater the number of medications a patient is taking, the greater their risk of delirium (T) 86.39% 96.20% +  9.81%
15. A urinary catheter reduces the risk of delirium (F) 86.05% 90.49% +  4.44%
16. Poor nutrition increases the risk of delirium (T) 91.84% 98.10% +  6.26%
17. Dementia is an important risk factor for delirium (T) 94.56% 95.06% +  0.50%
18. Diabetes is an important risk factor for delirium (F) 14.97% 54.20% +  39.23%
19. Dehydration can be a risk factor for delirium (T) 96.94% 99.23% +  2.29%
20. Delirium is generally caused by alcohol withdrawal (F) 81.97% 85.06% +  3.09%
21. A family history of dementia predisposes a patient to delirium (F) 38.70% 57.85% +  19.15%
Section B Overall Score 71.33% 84.67% +  13.34%
Items related to knowledge about delirium prevention and management strategies
22. Treatment of delirium always includes sedation (F) 91.44% 95.79% +  4.35%
23. Daily use of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the best way for diagnosing delirium (F) 22.26% 71.26% +  49.00%
24. Providing as much staff as possible to take care at the patients’ bedside is an important strategy in the prevention of delirium (F) 71.13% 84.23% +  13.10%
25. The use of physical restraints in patients at risk for delirium is the best way to ensure their safety (F) 95.19% 97.69% +  2.50%
26. Encouraging patients to (correctly) wear their visual/hearing aids is necessary to prevent delirium (T) 75.60% 94.62% + 19.02%
27. Adequate hydration is an important strategy in the prevention of delirium (T) 98.97% 100.00% + 1.03%
28. The maintenance of a normal sleep-wake cycle (e.g., avoidance of sleep interruption) is an important strategy in the prevention of delirium (T) 98.28% 98.84% +  0.56%
29. The use of haloperidol in preoperative surgical fracture patients is a way to prevent delirium (T) 48.97% 73.36% +  24.39%
30. The stimulation of patients to perform different activities at the same time is a way to prevent delirium (F) 35.17% 57.75% +  22.58%
31. Keeping instructions for patients as simple as possible is important in the prevention of delirium (T) 86.21% 93.41% +  7.20%
32. Early activation/ambulation (e.g., getting patients out of bed as soon as possible) of patients is an important strategy in the prevention of delirium (T) 65.17% 84.88% +  19.71%
33. Providing patients with familiar objects (e.g., photos, clock, newspaper) is important to prevent sensory deprivation (T) 98.97% 99.22% +  0.25%
34. Avoid eye contact in the prevention of delirium because it can be seen as a threat (F) 86.21% 94.96% +  8.75%
35. Keeping oral contact with the patient is an important strategy in the prevention of delirium (T) 86.55% 93.41% +  6.86%
Section C Overall Score 75.72% 88.53% +  12.81%
Student’s Overall Average Score (n = 298) 77.95%
(M = 27.28)
(SD = 3.24)
89.48%
(M = 31.32)
(SD = 2.43)
+ 11.54%
(4.04)