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Table 2 Bivariate analysis (n = 196) a

From: The association between nurses’ burnout and objective care quality indicators: a cross-sectional survey in long-term care wards

  Rates of negative events (care outcomes) in the ward b
Pneumonia Pressure ulcer Urinary catheter Tube feeding
1. Burnout c
 Emotional exhaustion .152 ** .175 ** .079 −.083
 Depersonalization .140 * .078 .086 −.060
 Reduced personal accomplishment −.069 −.059 .164 ** .148 **
2. Setting-related variables
 Hospital size .038 −.056 −.016 −.014
 Ward size −.114* .056 .056 .023
 Average frequency of night shifts per month .055 .029 .076 .081
 Average overtime hours per day .037 .048 −.057 −.117 *
 Rate of full-time staff per bed .102 * −.009 .010 .024
 Rate of part-time staff per bed .045 −.036 −.034 .021
 Patients’ condition
  Proportion of patients with ADL level 1 −.085 −.047 −.303 *** −.400 ***
  Proportion of patients with ADL level 2 .043 −.088 −.279 *** −.467 ***
  Proportion of patients with ADL level 3 .013 .117 * .392 *** .525 ***
3. Manager-related variables
 Managers’ gender
  Female 98.13 98.27 97.95 97.83
  Male 93.20 87.90 99.80 104.30
 Managers’ age −.041 −.013 −.106 −.012
 Managers’ years of nursing experience −.023 −.040 −.101* −.093*
4. Staff-related variables c
 Percentage of female nurses in the ward −.081 .023 .083 .079
 Average of nurses’ age in the ward −.189 ** −.090 −.104 * −.048
 Average of nurses’ years of experience −.172** −.091 −.079 −.041
 In-service education c
  Seminars inside the hospital .085 −.058 −.054 .020
  Seminars outside the hospital .023 −.097 −.030 −.010
  1. ADL Activity of daily living
  2. a All analyses were conducted at the unit level
  3. b Reported statistics are either correlation coefficients (Spearman’s rho) or mean ranks (for Mann-Whitney U-test)
  4. c Data were collected from staff nurses and aggregated at the unit level using the group mean
  5. * p-value ≤ .2; ** p-value < .05; *** p-value < .001