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Table 2 Example of the analysis process

From: End-of-life care for people with advanced dementia and pain: a qualitative study in Swedish nursing homes

Meaning units Codes Category Theme
When they cannot express if they are in pain nor grade their pain, then it is about me and my ability to assess their expressions, to look at face expressions and body language, movements, pallor or cold sweat and physical signs...you need to understand if it is about pain or if it is about anxiety or if it is a combination. Interpretation of pain Uncertainties when assessing pain Communication challenges: assessing and relieving pain
Signs of pain
Lack of verbal communication
To distinguish pain from anxiety