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Table 3 Summary of health coaching interventions

From: Health coaching provided by registered nurses described: a systematic review and narrative synthesis

References Coaching strategy/intervention used Preparation of coach/es No. of coach/es Coaching style Interval of intervention Length of intervention Duration of each session
[31] Goal-focused
Treat to target (directive)
Personalised care (non-directive)
Practice Nurses employed at GP practices 70 1 face-to-face
8 telephone
6 weekly (6 months)
2 months (6–12 months)
12 months
15 months
18 months 10–120 min per session
Average 30 min
[32] Based on Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
Focused on smoking cessation services, increasing physical activity, medication management and action planning
Specially trained study nurses
2 days training
8 4 telephone Week 1, 3,7,11 24 weeks 35–60 min (week 1)
15–20 min (week 3,7,11)
[34] Motivational Interviewing Registered nurses
Certified in motivational interviewing
Not specified 6 telephone biweekly 9 months Not specified
[35] DVD program (24 min)
Management
Motivational enhancement
Identifying desired and attainable behavioural goals
Behaviour plan
Trained diabetes nurse
Bilingual nurse educator trained in patient-centred approaches
1 5 telephone Case by case 6 months 15–60 min per session
[33] Based on Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
Focused on smoking cessation services, increasing physical activity, medication management and action planning
Specially trained study nurses
2 days training
8 4 telephone Week 1, 3,7,11 11 weeks 35–60 min (week 1), average 39 min;
15–20 min (week 3,7,11)
[36] Focus on giving information, interpreting the experience, and validating and clarifying responses and actions related to the surgical experience directed toward marking a difference in recovery outcomes Minimum with Bachelor of Nursing degree
3 × 2-hour formal classes including the procedure for data collection for both the NCI and the UP groups, study instruments, data management, and, if interested, data entry.
12 4 telephone 1st night, 24, 48, and 72 h post-surgery 1 week 15–35 min per session
[37] Motivational Interviewing
Health promotion
Masters prepared
Over 20 years of experience in psychiatric mental health nursing
All attended motivational interviewing training
5 5 face-to-face Week 2, 6, 10, 14, 18 18 weeks -
[38] Based on Revised Symptom Management Conceptual Model and the Individual and Family Self-Management Theory
Self-management
Knowledge and perceptions to motivate people to engage in desired symptom management behaviours, skills, and resources necessary to perform behaviours and support from family and health professionals to continue the behaviours.
Individualized psychoeducational sessions
Experienced nurses 1 1 face-to-face
2 telephone
Weekly 3 months 1 h per session
[5] Based on Self-Regulation Theory
Techniques incorporated: Goal setting, motivational interviewing, action planning, active listening and open-end questioning
Experienced certified nurses and public health nurses
Trained for 4 weeks in a telephone coaching model developed by Pfizer Health Solutions and modified for Finnish system.
Two supervised sessions.
Trained for motivational interviewing technique and telephone coaching
8 10–12 telephone Monthly 12 months 30–60 min per call
[1] 3-level approach (individual, group, and facility)
Group level: health education providing knowledge and motivating self-management behaviours
Individual level: Goal setting
Training given by Principle investigator
Geriatric nurse practitioners (2 experts in geriatric nursing and motivational interviewing)
Nurses were divided into two groups (individual level or group level)
8 Group workshop
Face-to-face
Weekly 8 weeks 1-hour group coaching
30 min per session
[9] Based on Self-Regulation Theory
Techniques incorporated: Goal setting, motivational interviewing, action planning, active listening and open-end questioning
Experienced certified nurses or public health nurses.
Trained for 4 weeks in a tele-coaching model initially developed by Pfizer Health Solutions then modified for Finnish system. Two supervised sessions.
7 10–11 telephone Monthly 12 months 30–60 min per call
[39] Coaching framework based on appreciative inquiry theory (goal setting, achievement)
1 inpatient interview
1 48-hour post-discharge phone call
1 home visit/participant within 14 days of discharge
30, 60, and 90-day follow-up calls
Master’s prepared-RN
Certified health coach
1 1 face-to-face
1 telephone
1 face-to-face
3 telephone
Immediately post-surgery
48-hour post-discharge
14, 30, 60, and 90 days post-discharge
3 months  
[40] Personalised care plan
Areas of coaching based on 8 priorities
Specially trained nurses employed by NHS Direct
Content of training not specified
Not specified 12 telephone Usually monthly (depending on patients’ situations) 12 months 15 min per call
[41] Based on James Prochaska’s transtheoretical model of behaviour change
Targeted 4 desired asthma care behaviours
Paediatric nurses working at St. Louis Children’s Hospital telephone triage service (registered nurse for at least 10 years, and an average of 5 years of paediatric telephone triage experience)
Training was composed of two, 90-minute group sessions within a two-week period to review study design. Course content included an introduction to asthma coaching and the conceptual model, and review of documentation expectations.
Coaches learned how to “stage” parents on their readiness to apply each of the targeted behaviours, then observed and practiced staging through role-playing and written assignments. They learned how to provide tailored care advice appropriate to each parent’s stage of readiness guided by a computerized protocol.
13 1–11 telephone Average 4–8 calls 12 months 10 min per call
[42] Motivational interviewing Trained extensively in motivational interviewing and change theory by a cognitive behavioural psychologist and then in procedures related to the specific coaching protocol. 1 4 telephone Fortnightly 6 weeks 30 min
[43] Medication management
Pain advocacy
Living with pain
Master’s-prepared RN with prior experience in oncology or pain management and received additional training and monitoring by the principle investigator. Not specified 3 face-to-face
2 telephone
2, 3, 4, 5 and 6th week 12 weeks 45–60 min (face-to-face); 10–15 min (telephone)
[44] Lifestyle and pharmacological management: Five stages along a continuum of motivational readiness to engage in a healthy behaviour (Precontemplation; Contemplation; Preparation; Action; and Maintenance) Licensed practice nurses who had extensive previous experience with asthma assessment and treatment
Attended 5 training days
Trained 2 days to deliver telephone coaching session to individuals
Practice nurses employed by GP clinics
2 1 face-to-face
8 telephone
6 weekly (6 months)
2 monthlies (6–12 months)
12 months
15 months
18 months -
  1. GP General Practice, NHS National Health Service, RN Registered Nurse