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Table 1 Required elements for formative and summative evaluation according to the Standards of Best Practice for participant evaluation recommended by the International Nursing Association for Clinical Simulation and Learning (INACSL, 2016)

From: Comparing formative and summative simulation-based assessment in undergraduate nursing students: nursing competency acquisition and clinical simulation satisfaction

Formative evaluation Summative evaluation
Formative evaluation is conducted to:
• Monitor progress toward achieving outcomes.
• Provide ongoing formative feedback.
• Support participant’s clinical competencies.
• Identify and close gaps in knowledge and skills.
• Assess readiness for real-world experiences.
• Facilitate teaching and learning.
Summative evaluation is conducted:
• At a discrete point in time (i.e., at the end of a course or certain time period).
• In a safe learning environment.
• After orientation to the environment and equipment.
• Appropriate level of fidelity necessary to achieve the participant outcomes.
• Utilizing a standardized format and scoring methods (i.e., utilizing a standardized scenario that includes information on when to cue, scenario length of time, and other scenario details).
• With a video recording of the evaluation to allow review by multiple trained evaluators
Requires formally trained facilitators (see INACSL Standard: Facilitation). Use a theoretically based method to determine passing or cut scores where appropriate.
Use small group ratio, ideally a minimum ratio of one facilitator per three to five students. Select a valid and reliable instrument.
  Provide rater training for observation-based evaluation.
  Establish interrater reliability when more than one rater required.
  Inform participants in advance of the evaluation.
  Provide summative feedback to participant about achievement of outcomes.