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Table 5 Descriptive data, t-test and effect sizes (d) of differences between two evaluation strategies for each item of clinical simulation satisfaction questionnaire (n = 218)

From: Comparing formative and summative simulation-based assessment in undergraduate nursing students: nursing competency acquisition and clinical simulation satisfaction

Scale Formative evaluation
(n = 106)
Summative evaluation
(n = 112)
t(1,217) Sig. Effect size
(d)
Mean
(SD)
Mean
(SD)
1. Facilities and equipment were real 4.41 (0.598) 4.03 (0.963) 4.593 .001 .379
2. Objectives were clear cases 4.47 (0.665) 3.85 (1.125) 14.602 <.001 .623
3. Cases recreated real situations 4.83 (0.425) 4.36 (0.919) 59.431 <.001 .473
4. Timing for each simulation case has been adequate 4.16 (1.025) 3.05 (1.387) 12.403 <.001 1.107
5. The degree of cases difficulty was appropriate to my knowledge. 4.46 (0.650) 4.21 (0.650) 5.138 .013 .257
6. I felt comfortable and respected during the sessions 4.80 (0.486) 4.30 (0.966) 55.071 <.001 .498
7. Clinical simulation is useful to assess a patient’s clinical simulation 4.80 (0.446) 4.18 (0.922) 39.435 <.001 .623
8. Simulation practices help you learn to avoid mistakes 4.83 (0.402) 4.38 (0.903) 77.077 <.001 .446
9. Simulation has helped me to set priorities for action 4.72 (0.530) 4.19 (0.925) 19.479 <.001 .529
10. Simulation has improved my ability to provide care to my patients 4.58 (0.647) 3.87 (1.061) 14.514 <.001 .709
11. Simulation has made me think about my next clinical practice 4.78 (0.478) 4.39 (0.820) 38.654 <.001 .390
12. Simulation improves communication and teamwork 4.69 (0.541) 4.35 (0.946) 27.701 .001 .340
13. Simulation has made me more aware/worried about clinical practice 3.73 (1.231) 4.77 (.849) 12.09 <.001 -.947
14. Simulation is beneficial to relate theory to practice 4.79 (0.407) 4.30 (0.837) 54.177 <.001 .489
15. Simulation allows us to plan the patient care effectively 4.44 (0.677) 4.21 (0.840) 1.055 .022 .238
16. I have improved my technical skills 4.16 (0.758) 3.76 (1.109) 15.460 .002 .401
17. I have reinforced my critical thinking and decision-making 4.41 (0.644) 4.00 (1.048) 7.997 .001 .406
18. Simulation helped me assess patient’s condition 4.48 (0.651) 4.17 (0.994) 6.253 .007 .311
19. This experience has helped me prioritise care 4.63 (0.574) 4.03 (1.035) 19.021 <.001 .605
20. Simulation promotes self-confidence 4.41 (0.714) 3.90 (1.178) 12.818 <.001 .504
21. I have improved communication with the team 4.56 (0.663) 4.29 (0.946) 7.803 .018 .262
22. I have improved communication with the family 2.65 (1.487) 2.77 (1.381) 5.693 .543 -.115
23. I have improved communication with the patient 4.05 (0.970) 3.93 (1.191) 2.187 .420 .119
24. This type of practice has increased my assertiveness 4.40 (0.699) 3.75 (1.234) 25.553 <.001 .649
25. I lost calm during any of the cases 3.09 (1.559) 3.22 (1.559) .032 .539 -.129
26. Interaction with simulation has improved my clinical competence 4.36 (0.679) 3.81 (1.070) 12.397 <.001 .546
27. The teacher gave constructive feedback after each session 4.79 (0.430) 4.47 (0.880) 43.147 .001 .319
28. Debriefing has helped me reflect on the cases 4.79 (0.492) 4.30 (0.858) 40.809 <.001 .489
29. Debriefing at the end of the session has helped me correct mistakes 4.77 (0.522) 4.21 (0.988) 51.719 <.001 .568
30. I knew the cases theoretical side 4.70 (0.501) 4.33 (0.884) 26.761 <.001 .368
31. I have learned from the mistakes I made during the simulation 4.79 (0.407) 4.39 (0.914) 46.949 <.001 .400
32. Practical utility 4.78 (0.414) 4.15 (1.076) 45.375 <.001 .631
33. Overall satisfaction of sessions 4.92 (0.312) 4.06 (1.016) 79.288 <.001 .953