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Table 3 Summarizing the main suggestions and strategies for integrating curriculum

From: Developing an integrated curriculum for patient safety in an undergraduate nursing program: a case study

Steps Main suggestions Strategies for integrating curriculum
1) Literature review Confirmation of educational content consistent with the position of a credible institution (e.g., WHO, CASN and JCI) - For example, WHO’s “what is patient safety” and CASN’s “contribute to a culture of patient safety” were derived as “concept of patient safety,” one of the sub-topics of patient safety principles, the patient safety topic of this university. By integrating WHO’s “Why applying human factors is important for patient safety?” and CASN’s “Optimize human and environmental factors,” the topics were derived as “Human factor” and “Systems” among the sub-topics of patient safety principles.
  Patient safety topics decision reflecting the characteristics of each university’s curriculum and practice environment - In the case of this university, a clinical practice course is provided from the third year (for one year) at a JCI-certified medical institution. Thus, IPSG, which can be repeatedly learned in various settings according to the curriculum’s principle of continuity and integration, has been added as the educational content.
2) Analysis of course syllabus Analyzing all courses offered from the first to fourth year of the program - The syllabus of the existing curriculum needs to be analyzed to assess how patient safety factors were reflected in the existing curriculum and the courses in which they needed to be reflected.
  Selection of subjects according to students’ level of understanding and patient safety topics - The assignment of patient safety topics within these courses was considered the level of students (e.g., The basic concepts of patient safety and patient engagement were introduced in Understanding of Nursing, which is the first major course offered in the first year of the program.)
  Establishing an organic relationship on patient safety topics by courses - It is necessary to reach a scholarly consensus throughout the school through several faculty meetings.
(e.g., In this university, teamwork was included in the Nursing Management course, but after the faculty meeting, agreed that communication the most important capability in teamwork. Therefore, it was decided to add communication content related to teamwork to the Communication theory II course)
  Providing the special lecture before starting clinical practice course - The special lecture is provided to third-year students who are new to clinical practicum before they experience the field is to remind them about patient safety topics to enhance the integration of theory-practice and safety accident prevention and coping competency.
3) Selection of courses related to patient safety topics The linkage between patient safety topics and theoretical and practical courses - To assess the linkage of patient safety-related education according to the program outcomes of the curriculum, performance criteria for required and elective major courses need to be presented according to the performance criteria set by the program outcomes.
4) Development of evaluation tool Patient safety competency evaluation through PSC checklist - The PSC checklist is designed to be used as a tool to induce students to naturally acquire patient safety topics in the clinical environment by using them during the clinical practicum courses. Therefore, the number of performances and the achievement of the items can be the criteria for a part of the evaluation(e.g., Students mark the PSC checklist items they observed or performed on a checklist during each practice course and submit it at the end of the course.)