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Table 2 Social-demographic and clinical characteristics of the total samples and the comparison between groups at baseline (N = 128)

From: The effects of a nurse-led integrative medicine-based structured education program on self-management behaviors among individuals with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial

Characteristics Total sample (N = 128)
[\(\overline{X}\pm S\) /Median (IQR)/n (%)]
Intervention group (N = 64)
[\(\overline{X}\pm S\) /Median (IQR)/n (%)]
Control group (N = 64)
[\(\overline{X}\pm S\) /Median (IQR)/n (%)]
p value
Gender
  Male 75 (58.6%) 37 (57.8%) 38 (59.4%) 0.858*
  Female 53 (41.4%) 27 (42.2%) 26 (40.6%)
Age (years) 57.43 ± 10.62 58.04 ± 10.46 56.83 ± 10.82 0.520#
BMI 23.71 ± 3.03 23.59 ± 2.90 23.82 ± 3.16 0.658#
  Underweight 4 (3.2%) 2 (3.2%) 2 (3.2%) 0.775*
  Normal 66 (52.0%) 32 (50.8%) 34 (53.1%)
  Overweight 44 (34.6%) 24 (38.1%) 20 (31.3%)
  Obesity 13 (10.2%) 5 (7.9%) 8 (12.4%)
Marital status
  Married 114 (89.1%) 57 (89.1%) 57 (89.1%) 1.00*
  Single/Divorced/Widowed 14 (10.9%) 7 (10.9%) 7 (10.9%)
Educational level
  Primary school or below 3 (2.3%) 1 (1.6%) 2 (3.1%) 0.697*
  Secondary school 65 (50.8%) 33 (51.6%) 32 (50.0%)
  College 34 (26.6%) 15 (23.4%) 19 (29.7)
  Undergraduate or above 26 (20.3%) 15 (23.4%) 11 (17.2%)
Occupational status
  Employed 48 (37.5%) 22 (34.4%) 26 (40.6%) 0.465*
  Unemployed/Retired 80 (62.5%) 42 (65.6%) 38 (59.4%)
Family average income (monthly in CNY) 4250 (3000, 6000) 4000 (3000, 5250) 4500 (3000, 6000) 0.867§
Insurance
  Public insurance 127 (99.2%) 63 (98.4%) 64 (100%) 1.000
  Commercial insurance 1 (0.8%) 1 (1.6%) 0 (0.0%)
Diabetes family history
  Yes 40 (31.3%) 18 (28.1%) 22 (34.4%) 0.624*
  No 71 (55.5%) 36 (56.3%) 35 (54.7%)
  Unclear 17 (13.2%) 10 (15.6%) 7 (10.9%)
Diabetes duration (months) 6.70 ± 2.25 6.86 ± 2.21 6.53 ± 2.30 0.412#
HbA1c (%) 6.76 ± 1.22 6.66 ± 1.09 6.86 ± 1.34 0.368#
  <  6.5% 54 (42.5%) 29 (46.0%) 25 (39.1%) 0.427*
  ≥ 6.5% 73 (57.5%) 34 (54.0%) 39 (60.9%)
Low blood glucose reaction
  Yes 35 (27.6%) 21 (33.3%) 14 (21.9%) 0.148*
  No 92 (72.4%) 42 (66.7%) 50 (78.1%)
Treatment regimen     
  No medical treatment/Lifestyle modification 32 (25.6%) 15 (23.8%) 17 (27.4%) 0.941*
  Oral medicine only 74 (59.2%) 39 (61.9%) 35 (56.5%)
  Insulin only 2 (1.6%) 1 (1.6%) 1 (1.6%)
  Oral medicine & insulin 17 (13.6%) 8 (12.7%) 9 (14.5%)
Acute complications
  Yes 12 (9.4%) 6 (9.4%) 6 (9.4%) 1.000*
  No 116 (90.6%) 58 (90.6%) 58 (90.6%)
Chronic complications
  Yes 28 (21.9%) 18 (28.1%) 10 (15.6%) 0.087*
  No 100 (78.1%) 46 (71.9%) 54 (84.4%)
Concurrent chronic diseases
  Yes 85 (66.4%) 43 (67.2%) 42 (65.6%) 0.852*
  No 43 (33.6%) 21 (32.8%) 22 (34.4%)
  1. Note: \(\overline{X}\pm S\): mean ± standard deviation; IQR Interquartile range, n (%): count (percentage); p value: the probability of a true null hypothesis; BMI Body mass index, CNY Chinese Yuan, HbA1c Glycated Hemoglobin A; *: Chi-square tests; #: independent-samples t tests; §: Mann-Whitney U test; : Fisher’s exact test