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Table 3 Comparison of outcome variables between groups and effect size of the intervention over the study period (N = 128)

From: The effects of a nurse-led integrative medicine-based structured education program on self-management behaviors among individuals with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial

Variables Control group*
(N = 64)
Intervention group*
(N = 64)
Between-group p value Effect size
(Cohen’s d/φ)
HbA1c (%)
  Baseline 6.86 ± 1.34 6.66 ± 1.09 0.368
  T2 follow-up 6.97 ± 1.18 6.57 ± 0.84 0.041 0.39
Diabetes self-management behaviors (SDSCA)
General diet
  Baseline 5.04 ± 2.07 5.36 ± 1.80 0.361
  T1 follow-up 5.44 ± 1.16 5.78 ± 1.10 0.102
  T2 follow-up 5.30 ± 1.17 5.88 ± 0.94 0.005 0.55
Specific diet regarding intake of fruits and vegetables
  Baseline 4.28 ± 2.60 4.30 ± 2.54 0.965
  T1 follow-up 4.13 ± 2.23 5.12 ± 1.69 0.008
  T2 follow-up 4.08 ± 2.07 5.07 ± 1.67 0.007 0.53
Specific diet regarding intake of high fat foods
  Baseline 3.89 ± 2.29 4.00 ± 2.46 0.797
  T1 follow-up 4.00 ± 1.53 4.90 ± 1.81 0.005
  T2 follow-up 4.10 ± 1.33 4.62 ± 1.56 0.066 0.36
Physical activity
  Baseline 5.02 ± 2.21 4.85 ± 2.18 0.673
  T1 follow-up 5.17 ± 1.88 5.10 ± 1.93 0.826
  T2 follow-up 4.92 ± 1.76 5.04 ± 1.73 0.721 0.07
Blood glucose monitoring
  Baseline 3.10 ± 2.18 2.91 ± 2.33 0.643
  T1 follow-up 3.09 ± 2.08 3.14 ± 2.19 0.895
  T2 follow-up 2.89 ± 1.82 3.30 ± 2.08 0.273 0.21
Foot care
  Baseline 3.59 ± 2.66 3.42 ± 2.74 0.719
  T1 follow-up 3.46 ± 2.35 5.25 ± 1.99 < 0.001
  T2 follow-up 3.47 ± 2.27 5.46 ± 1.69 < 0.001 0.99
Smoking status (non-smoker to smoker ratio)
  Baseline 43:21 46:18 0.565  
  T1 follow-up 39:17 47:13 0.285  
  T2 follow-up 40:14 49:8 0.116 0.149
Medication management
  Baseline 4.84 ± 3.01 5.44 ± 2.71 0.248
  T1 follow-up 4.68 ± 3.04 6.22 ± 1.78 0.001
  T2 follow-up 4.61 ± 3.02 6.18 ± 1.85 0.002 0.63
Self-efficacy (DMSES)
  Baseline 153.32 ± 37.62 147.90 ± 36.53 0.420
  T1 follow-up 154.44 ± 31.99 157.29 ± 30.16 0.625
  T2 follow-up 150.17 ± 32.75 155.52 ± 28.95 0.368 0.17
  1. Note: p value: the probability of a true null hypothesis; Cohen’s d: effect size for continuous variables; φ: phi, effect size for categorical variables; HbA1c Glycated Hemoglobin A, SDSCA Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities, DMSES Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale. *: in mean ± standard deviation unless specified