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Table 1 Differences between pre-test and post-test knowledge and self-efficacy scores of participants in aromatherapy (N = 80)

From: Effectiveness of flipped teaching on the knowledge and self-efficacy of nursing personnel in non-pharmacological pain management-aromatherapy: a quasi-experiment

Variable Pre-test Post-test
Mean ± SD T P Mean ± SD T P
Knowledge       
  Experimental group 4.65 ± 1.05 1.117 0.267 5.53 ± 0.56 8.249 0.00*
  Control group 4.05 ± 0.99    4.38 ± 1.15   
Self-efficacy       
  Experimental group 7.03 ± 1.12 0.787 0.434 8.55 ± 0.96 6.12 0.00*
  Control group 6.83 ± 1.52    6.90 ± 1.41   
  1. *p < 0.05