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Table 2 Comparison of massage group and control group for both pain VAS scores and changes in pain VAS score from baseline, at post treatment assessments*.

From: A randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a single session of nurse administered massage for short term relief of chronic non-malignant pain

Time point Massage group Control group p-value (2 sample t-test)
  Mean SD N# Mean SD N#  
Baseline score 57.7 18.0 49 62.3 16.6 47 0.200 NS
Immediately post treatment score 41.1 20.2 49 62.8 20.9 47  
Change from baseline 16.7 21.2 48 -0.04 16.0 45 0.000
1 hour post treatment score 44.8 23.5 47 64.9 26.7 43  
Change from baseline 12.4 21.3 47 -2.66 24.0 41 0.002
  1. * Note that at each time point adding the change from baseline scores to the post treatment scores will not necessarily equal the baseline scores, because some patients have dropped out after the baseline
  2. SD = Standard Deviation
  3. NS = Not significant
  4. # the table has some missing data on VAS scores at baseline, but data available on other outcomes. One participant in the massage group and 3 in control group did not complete VAS pain scores, and thus were not included in the later comparisons to baseline.