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Table 1 Psychometric characteristics of SDL instruments

From: Concurrent validity of self-rating scale of self-directed learning and self-directed learning instrument among Italian nursing students

Instrument Source Countrya Description Participants Psychometric Indices
Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) Guglielmino,
1977 [15]
US Eight factors: openness to learning opportunities, self-concept as an effective learner, initiative and independence in learning, informed acceptance of responsibility for one’s own learning, love of learning, creativity, positive orientation to the future, ability to use basic study skills, and problem-solving skills
Total items: 57 items
5-point Likert scale
Score range: 57–285
307 students (subsequently validated in nursing students: [12, 16, 18, 41]) Content validity: 3 rounds of Delphi study
Internal consistency: α = .87
Construct validity: EFA explained variance: 48 %
Concurrent validity: SDLRS vs. observed behaviours of the students – Self-Esteem r = .39, p. <0.01; Self-Efficacy r = .58, p. <0.01; Attitude r = .60, p. <0.01 [33]
Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) Fisher et al., 2001 [16] AU Three factors: self-management, desirefor learning, and self-control
Total items: 40
5-point Likert scale
Score range: 40–200
201 nursing students Content validity: 2 rounds of Delphi study
Internal consistency: α = .924
Construct validity: EFA explained variance: 36.4 %
Concurrent validity: None reported
Turkey version of Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS_TU) Kocaman et al., 2006 [17] TR Three factors: self-management, desire
for learning, and self-control
Total items: 40
5-point Likert scale
Score range: 40–200
50 nursing students Content validity: Translation from English to Turkish
Internal consistency: α = .94
Construct validity: Known-groups technique t = 7.808 (p = 0.000)
Concurrent validity: None reported
Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) Fisher and King, 2010 [18] AU Three factors: self-management, desire
for learning, and self-control
Total items: 40
5-point Likert scale
Score range: 40–200
227 nursing students Content validity: None reported
Internal consistency: α = .87
Construct validity: CFA sub scale: Self management RMSEA = .039, GFI = .960, GFI-AGFI = .023, CFI = .971, SRMR = .039, Desire for learning RMSEA = .024, GFI = .971, GFI-AGFI = .020, CFI = .993, SRMR = .032, Self-control RMSEA = .054, GFI = .951, GFI-AGFI = .028, CFI = .930, SRMR = .031
Concurrent validity: None reported
Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale (SDLRS) Williams and Brown, 2013 [2] US Three factors: self-management, desire
for learning, and self-control
Total items: 40
5-point Likert scale
Score range: 40–200
233 undergraduate paramedics Content validity: None reported
Internal consistency: α = .90
Construct validity: CFA: RMSEA (90 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.102 (0.087, 0.116), AGFI = 0.815, CFI = 0.817, TLI = 0.781, and SRMR = 0.078. The best fitting model was the four-factor 36-item and three-factor 29-item.
Concurrent validity: None reported
Oddi Continuing Learning Inventory (OCLI) Oddi et al., 1990 [19] US Three factors: motivational, effective and cognitive attributes: proactive drive versus reactive drive; commitment to learning versus apathy/aversion to learning and cognitive openness versus defensiveness
Total items: 24 items
7 point Likert scale Score range: 24–168
256 registered nurses Content validity: Panel of experts
Internal consistency: α = .90
Construct validity: EFA explained variance: 45.7 %
Concurrent validity: OCLI vs. three sub scale of the Adjective Checklist (ACL) [42]: Tendency to seek affiliation with others r = .26; Work productively and consciously toward a goal r = .53; Manifest initiative and high levels of aspiration r = .55.
Self-Rating Scale of Self-Directed Learning (SRSSDL) Williamson, 2007 [20] UK Five factors: awareness, learning strategies, learning activities, evaluation, and interpersonal skills
Total items: 60
5-point Likert scale
Score range: 60–300
30 nursing students Content validity: 2 rounds of Delphi study
Internal consistency: α = .71–.79
Construct validity: Known-groups technique, data not reported
Concurrent validity: None reported
Italian version of Self-Rating Scale of Self-Directed Learning (SRSSDL_Ita) Cadorin et al., 2013 [21] IT Eight factors: awareness, attitudes, motivation, learning strategies, learning methods, learning activities, interpersonal skills and constructing knowledge
Total items: 40
5-point Likert scale
Score range: 40–200
847 nurses, radiology technicians, nursing students and radiology technician students Content validity: Translation and back-translation
Internal consistency: α = .92
Construct validity: EFA explained variance 53.3 % and CFAb > χ 2 (712) = 1104.273 with p < 0.001, RMSEA = 0.031 (lower bound 0.027; upper bound 0.054) with p = 1.00, SRMR = 0.055
Concurrent validity: None reported
Self-Directed Learning Instrument (SDLI) Cheng et al., 2010 [5] TW Four factors: learning motivation, planning and implementing, self-monitoring, and interpersonal communication.
Total items: 20
5-point Likert scale
Score range: 20–100
1,072 nursing students Content validity: 2 rounds of Delphi study
Internal consistency: α = .91
Construct validity: CFA RMS = 0.04, RMSEA = 0.057, GFI = 0.94, AGFI = 0.92, NFI = 0.93)
Concurrent validity: None reported
Self-Directed Learning Instrument (SDLI) Shen et al., 2014 [8] CN Four factors: learning motivation, planning and implementing, self-monitoring, and interpersonal communication.
Total Items: 20
5-point Likert scale
Score range: 20–100
1,499 nursing students Content validity: None reported
Internal consistency: α = .91
Construct validity: EFA explained variance 53.3 % CFA: RMR = 0.028, RMSEA = 0.057, CFI = 0.930, GFI = 0.929, AGFI = 0.909, PGFI = 0.781, NFI = 0.905
Concurrent validity: SDI vs. SRSSDL Pearson .87 (p = .000)
  1. a US United States, UK United Kingdom, IT Italy, TR Turkey, CN China, TW Taiwan, AU Australia
  2. bunder publication
  3. Note: α Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient – Total scale, r Pearson’s Coefficient, t t-test, EFA Explorative Factor Analysis, CFA Confirmatory Factor Analysis, RMSEA Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, SRMR Standardised Root Mean Square Residual, RMS Standardised Residual, RMR Root Mean Square Residual, CFI Comparative Fit Indices, PGFI Parsimony Goodness-of-Fit Index, AGFI Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index, GFI Goodness of Fit, NFI Normed Fit Index, ACL Adjective Checklist comprised of the 300 adjectives commonly used to describe a person’s behavioural tendencies and attributes