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Table 1 Steps of ISPOR guidelines for translation

From: Nu-DESC DK: the Danish version of the nursing delirium screening scale (nu-DESC)

1 Preparation Obtain permission to use instrument and involvement of original author
2 Forward Translation Development of at least two independent forward translations
3 Reconciliation Reconciliation of the forward translations into a single forward translation
4 Back Translation Back translation of the reconciled translation into the source language
5 Back Translation Review Review of the back translations against the source language
6 Harmonization Harmonization of all new translations with each other and the source version
7 Cognitive Debriefing Cognitive debriefing of the new translation, with 5–8 healthcare professionals
8 Review of Cognitive Debriefing Results and Finalization Cognitive debriefing results are reviewed and the translation finalize
9 Proofreading The finalized translation is proofread
10 Final Report Report is written on the development of the translation