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Table 2 Change in mean scores of CLDQ, CES-D and GSES in the intervention and usual care groups at 3 and 6 months follow-up

From: Efficacy of a self-management program in patients with chronic viral hepatitis in China

Indicator Time point Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA)*
IV group UC group p value
n Mean SD n Mean SD Interaction Within group Between group I - J SE p value**
CLDQ (QOL scale)
  Baseline 30 135.2 20.6 26 140.0 21.2 <  0.001 <  0.001 <  0.001 −3.893 6.053 0.523
  3 M 30 152.0 14.5 26 136.5 17.7 16.230 4.652 0.001
  6 M 30 164.0 13.5 26 133.5 14.2 30.544 4.026 <  0.001
CES-D (Depression scale)
  Baseline 30 16.7 8.9 26 12.4 7.8 0.002 <  0.001 0.537 3.891 2.439 0.117
  3 M 30 11.8 6.3 26 11.8 5.8 −0.267 1.749 0.879
  6 M 30 9.5 5.1 26 11.0 5.3 −2.203 1.499 0.148
GSES (Self – efficacy scale)
  Baseline 30 2.4 0.6 26 2.5 0.6 <  0.001 0.005 0.001 −0.144 0.177 0.422
  3 M 30 2.7 0.5 26 2.3 0.4 0.434 0.133 0.002
  6 M 30 3.1 0.4 26 2.2 0.4 0.843 0.118 <  0.001
  1. CLDQ Chronic Liver Disease questionnaires, CES-D the Center for Epidemiologic Depression scale, GSES General Self Efficacy Scale, IV Intervention group, SD Standard Deviation, I – J = Difference in average value, SE Standard Error, ANOVA Analysis of variance, ANCOVA Analysis of covariance, UC Usual care group, BL Base line, M month
  2. *Analysis of covariance was carried out using gender as a covariate
  3. **p values comparing the intervention group with the control group were obtained by multiple comparisons (Bonferroni’s correction)