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Table 2 Summary of the process of iterative data collection using visual methods

From: Distinctive nursing practices in working with mothers to care for hospitalised children at a district hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a descriptive observational study

ActivityVisual method(s) used as stimulusPurposeTiming
Initial interview with nurse managerPhoto-elicitationGenerate a description of facility norms of practice, relating to the involvement of families in the care of their children. Begin to explore the rationale for practices.After generating photographs, near the start of practice observation.
Focus groupsGraphic facilitationStimulate nurses’ narrative accounts of what happens to children and their families in this setting, and why.
Generate a visual representation of the pathway of care, tracing children’s individual journeys into, through and out of the healthcare setting, identifying: the extent of family involvement at each stage; the nursing practices associated with family involvement, and the underlying rationale for nurses’ practices.
Elicit nurses’ accounts of what they think and feel about involving families in caring for children.
At least two per site. One near the start of practice observation.
Individual interviews with nursesGraphic facilitation
Elicit nurses’ accounts of activities observed.Ongoing throughout data collection.
Interviews with family membersNoneGenerate families’ accounts and explanations of nursing practices.
Enable comparison of families’ and nurses’ descriptions of practice.
Ongoing throughout data collection.
Summary added to graphic
Subsequent/final interview(s) with nurse managerPhoto-elicitation
Graphic facilitation
Refine the description of practices and explore inconsistencies arising from other accounts of practice e.g. focus groups.
Further explore the rationale, philosophy and culture behind observed practices.
Close to the end of the period of practice observation.