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Table 2 Descriptive Statistics of Delirium Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ) in Nursing Students Pre/Post-Test (n = 206)

From: Evaluation of a co-produced delirium awareness programme for undergraduate nursing students in Northern Ireland: a pre-test/post-test study

DKQ ItemPre-Test Score (% Correct Answers)Post-Test Score (% Correct Answers)+/− Difference (% Correct Answers)
A. Items related to knowledge about the presentation, symptoms and outcomes of delirium
1. Fluctuation between orientation and disorientation is a typical feature of delirium92.57%94.77%+ 2.20%
2. Symptoms of depression may mimic delirium66.29%82.56%+ 16.27%
3. Patients never remember episodes of delirium70.29%83.14%+ 12.85%
4. Delirium never lasts for more than a few hours87.43%96.51%+ 9.08%
5. A patient who is lethargic and difficult to rouse does certainly not have a delirium90.86%93.60%+ 2.74%
6. Patients with delirium are always physically and/or verbally aggressive96.57%95.35%- 1.19%
7. Patients with delirium have a higher mortality rate53.14%68.02%+ 14.88%
8. Behavioural changes in the course of the day are typical of delirium90.29%97.67%+ 7.38%
9. A patient with delirium is likely to be easily distracted and/or have difficulty following a conversation92.00%95.93%+ 3.93%
10. Patients with delirium will often experience perceptual disturbances (e.g. visual and/or auditory hallucinations)91.43%96.51%+ 5.08%
Section A Overall Score83.09%90.41%+ 7.32%
B. Items related to knowledge about causes and risk factors of delirium
11. A patient admitted with pneumonia and having diabetes, visual and auditory disturbances has the same risk for delirium as a patient admitted with pneumonia without co-morbidities.62.86%63.95%+ 1.09%
12. The risk for delirium increases with age74.29%95.93%+ 21.64%
13. A patient with impaired vision is at increased risk of delirium66.29%92.57%+ 26.28%
14. The greater the number of medications a patient is taking, the greater their risk of delirium47.43%87.56%+ 40.13%
15. A urinary catheter reduces the risk of delirium73.14%93.71%+ 20.57%
16. Poor nutrition increases the risk of delirium72.57%93.60%+ 21.03%
17. Dementia is an important risk factor for delirium74.86%86.63%+ 11.77%
18. Diabetes is an important risk factor for delirium40.00%89.53%+ 49.53%
19. Dehydration can be a risk factor for delirium91.43%96.51%+ 5.08%
20. Delirium is generally caused by alcohol withdrawal79.43%76.74%- 2.69%
21. A family history of dementia predisposes a patient to delirium50.29%52.91%+ 2.62%
Section B Overall Score66.60%84.51%+ 17.91%
Items related to knowledge about delirium prevention and management strategies
22. Treatment of delirium always includes sedation92.00%94.77%+ 2.77%
23. Daily use of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the best way for diagnosing delirium18.29%37.79%+ 19.5%
24. Providing as much staff as possible to take care at the patients’ bedside is an important strategy in the prevention of delirium57.14%60.47%+ 3.3%
25. The use of physical restraints in patients at risk for delirium is the best way to ensure their safety92.57%91.86%- 0.71%
26. Encouraging patients to (correctly) wear their visual/hearing aids is necessary to prevent delirium53.14%61.05%+ 7.91%
27. Adequate hydration is an important strategy in the prevention of delirium90.86%96.51%+ 5.65
28. The maintenance of a normal sleep-wake cycle (e.g., avoidance of sleep interruption) is an important strategy in the prevention of delirium88.57%94.19%+ 5.62%
29. The use of haloperidol in preoperative surgical fracture patients is a way to prevent delirium44.57%59.88%+ 15.31%
30. The stimulation of patients to perform different activities at the same time is a way to prevent delirium47.43%31.40%- 16.03%
31. Keeping instructions for patients as simple as possible is important in the prevention of delirium77.14%81.98%+ 4.84%
32. Early activation/ambulation (e.g., getting patients out of bed as soon as possible) of patients is an important strategy in the prevention of delirium44.57%63.37%+ 18.80%
33. Providing patients with familiar objects (e.g., photos, clock, newspaper) is important to prevent sensory deprivation93.71%93.02%- 0.69%
34. Avoid eye contact in the prevention of delirium because it can be seen as a threat83.43%85.47%+  2.04%
35. Keeping oral contact with the patient is an important strategy in the prevention of delirium69.14%80.81%+ 11.67%
Section C Overall Score68.04%73.76%+ 5.72%
Student’s Overall Average Score (n = 206)71.89% (25.16)81.89% (28.66)+ 10.00% (3.50)