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Table 1 Prevalence, types and forms of sexual harassment against female nurses

From: Sexual harassment against female nurses: a systematic review

Authors and Year Country Sample size Prevalence Types and forms of sexual harassment Quality Score (0–9)
Othman et al. 2018, [21] Kenya 120 27.50% Sexual harassment 5
Fatema 2017, [22] Bangladesh 133 71.00% Sexual harassment 5
Hussein et al.2015, [23] Egypt 110 87.30% Verbal forms: Verbal comments to 27.57%,, Talking sexual words to 3.03%, Saying sexual jokes to 3.3%, Sending telephone to 12.43%
Non-verbal: Whistling to 11.2%, sex look to 38.17%, Waving to 5.13%, Forced identification to 15.17%, Stalking to 2.7%, Touching nurses’ body to 4.23%, Removal of clothes to 2.70%
7
Ali et al.2015, [24] Egypt 430 70.20% Staring in suggestive manner at 70.90% of female nurses, Talking by sexual words to 58.60%, Comments or jokes to 57.30%, Unnecessary touches to 49.30%, Making an intercourse offer to 30.5%,Threatened sex to 9.6%, Rape to 1.30% 7
Mushtaq et al. 2015, [25] Pakistan 200 71.66% Sexual harassment 6
Khan et al.2015, [26] Pakistan 150 80% Sexual harassment 5
Park et al. 2015, [27] South Korea. 970 19.70% Sexual harassment 6
Subedi et al.2013, [28] Nepal 134 40.30% Verbal: Vulgar words heard by 22.39%, Vulgar jokes heard by 35.82%,
Visual: People staring at 14.93% nurses’ body
People showing naked pictures to 2.24%
Contact: Trying to touch 4.48% of nurses
Embracing without permission to 18%
Blackmail for sex to 2.24%,
Threatening for sex to 2.24%
Facing rape like situation to 2.24%
5
Suhaila & Rampal 2012, [29] Malaysia 455 51.20% Verbal sexual harassment to 46.60%, Visual harassment to 24.80%
Psychological harassment to 20.90%, Physical harassment to 20.70%
Non –verbal harassment to16.70%
6
Shiao et al. 2010, [30] Taiwan 842 28.10% Sexual harassment, Physical Harassment,Verbal Harassment Assault 3.5% 7
Hibino et al. 2009, [31] Japan 464 56% Sexual jokes to 64.30% of the nurses, Physical contact to 59.70%, Gazing with sexual interest to 36.70%,Request for dating to 27.20%, Request to touch patients body to 14.80%, Hugging to14%, Stalking to 9.80%, Rape to 0.90% 7
Celik & Celik 2007, [32] Turkey 622 37.10% Sexual Harassment
Uninvited sexual jokes, stories, questions, or words to 11.62%
Allusive sexual behaviors with the eye, hand, or face to 6.98%
Unwillingly asked out to 6.1%, Unwanted mail or telephone calls to 5.14%, Touched on the body to 4.22%, Perpetrators shown their body sexually to 3.98%, Any attempt to assault to 0.18%
7
Gunnarsdottir et al. 2006, [33] Iceland 600 10% Sexual harassment to 10% 8
Hibino et al. 2006, [34] Japan 464 55.80% Verbal: Making sexual jokes and remarks to 12.28%, Asking about private matters to 5.39%, Asking for dating in 3.23%, Making threats to 2.16%
Non-verbal: Gazing at nurses to 4.74%
Stalking or visiting the nurse at her home to 1.08%
Contact: Touching the nurse’s body to as hugging to 10.78%, Trying to touch nurses’ body in 10.78%, Requesting the nurse to touch the patient’s body, Trying to bring the nurse to the patient’s bed, Attempting to sexually assault the nurse to 0.43%
8
Kisa et al. 2002, [35] Turkey 215 73% Suggestive looks to 20%, Sexual teasing and jokes to 19%, Suggestive physical gestures to 18%, Pressure for dates to 14%, Unwanted letters, telephone calls to 10%, Exposure of parts of the, body in a sexually suggestive way to 11%, Brushing, touching or grabbing to 19.53% 5
Matsuoka et al.2001, [36] Japan 243 49.4% Touching to 5.35%, gossip to 3.3%, brought up the topic of sexual relations to7.82% Asking sexual relations to 5.35%, touch body to 5.35, tried to touch nurses body in 24.28%, sexual jokes or words to 17.28% comment on body to 13.58%, gazing in an unpleasant manner to 6.17%, Send nude photo to 2.47%, send letter/phone call containing sexual issue to 3.29% 6
Shaikh 2000, [37] Pakistan 89 43.67% Verbal sexual harassment to 21.10%
Physical sexual harassment to 16.90%
5
Kisa & Dziegielewski 1996, [38] Turkey 229 75% Sexual teasing and jokes to 72%, Suggestive physical gestures to 65%, Pressure for dates to 53%, Unwanted letters, telephone calls to36%, Exposure of parts of the body in a sexually suggestive way to 40%, Brushing, touching or grabbing and grossly inappropriate touching to 26.64% 7
Dan et al.1995, [39] United States 52 80% Sexual harassment
Suggestive stories or offensive jokes to 51.9%, Unwelcome seductive behavior to 46.1%, Unwanted sexual attention to 41.4%
Deliberately touched and made uncomfortably to 41.67% Unwanted discussion of personal or sexual matters to 35.87%
5
Libbus & Bowman 1994, [40] United States 78 71.80% Sexual jokes to 13.46%, Sexual remarks to 19.23%, Touch (brushing, patting, hugging) to 14.74 19% 5
  1. Note: The study designs were descriptive cross sectional in all articles