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Table 3 Daily management for older adults with constipation (n = 247)

From: Management of constipation in long-term care hospitals and its ward manager and organization factors

 n (%)
Mean ± SD
Osmotic laxativesMagnesium oxide238(97.5)
Stimulant laxativesSodium picosulfate233(95.5)
Senna217(89.3)
SecretagoguesLubiprostone46(19.5)
Chinese herbal medicine 119(51.1)
External use medicine or procedureGlycerin enema158(64.2)
Suppository laxative174(71.9)
Digital disimpaction208(85.6)
Non-pharmacological managementIncreased fluid intake132(55.0)
Regular encouragement to use bathroom126(52.1)
Increased physical activity53(22.3)
Dietary fiber product83(34.4)
Probiotic product50(20.7)
The total number of non-pharmacological managements1.81.4
  1. Note: Missing data were excluded from this analysis and percentages for each item were calculated after excluding missing values