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Table 3 Differences between patients who died or survived within 30 days after discharge by patient characteristics (n = 129,923)

From: Association between the bed-to-nurse ratio and 30-day post-discharge mortality in patients undergoing surgery: a cross-sectional analysis using Korean administrative data

VariableCategoriesTotal
n (%)
Died
(n = 1355, 0.01%)
n (%)
Survived
(n = 128,568, 99.9%)
n (%)
χ2p
Age, yearsLess than 302564 (2.0)12 (0.5)2552 (99.5)411.29< .001
30–396707 (5.2)35 (0.5)6672 (99.5)
40–4918,083 (13.9)86 (0.5)17,997 (99.5)
50–5935,152 (27.1)244 (0.7)34,908 (99.3)
60–6934,152 (26.3)319 (0.9)33,833 (99.1)
70 or greater33,265 (25.6)659 (2.0)32,606 (98.0)
Mean ± SDa59.6 ± 12.9    
GenderMale78,485 (60.4)859 (1.1)77,626 (98.9)5.10.024
Female51,438 (39.6)496 (1.0)50,942 (99.0)
Type of surgeryMajor craniotomy except for trauma29,898 (23.0)417 (1.4)29,481 (98.6)414.92< .001
Other craniotomy except for trauma6586 (5.1)176 (2.7)6410 (97.3)
Craniotomy for trauma8683 (6.7)171 (2.0)8512 (98.0)
Cardiac valve procedure with cardiac catheter2110 (1.6)19 (0.9)2091 (99.1)
Cardiac valve procedure without cardiac catheter3506 (2.7)22 (0.6)3484 (99.4)
Coronary bypass with/without cardiac catheter4079 (3.1)31 (0.8)4048 (99.2)
Major reconstructive vascular procedure2811 (2.2)45 (1.6)2766 (98.4)
Amputation for circulatory system disorders1121 (0.9)17 (1.5)1104 (98.5)
Esophageal procedure2086 (1.6)19 (0.9)2067 (99.1)
Major small and large bowel procedure12,401 (9.5)56 (0.5)12,345 (99.6)
Stomach and duodenal procedure38,014 (29.3)261 (0.7)37,753 (99.3)
Pancreas, liver and shunt procedure18,628 (14.3)121 (0.7)18,507 (99.4)
Comorbidities or complicationsNone74,365 (57.2)357 (0.5)74,008 (99.5)618.31< .001
Minor33,988 (26.2)555 (1.6)33,433 (98.4)
Moderate17,297 (13.3)402 (2.3)16,895 (97.7)
Severe4273 (3.3)41 (1.0)4232 (99.0)
Type of health insuranceSelf-employed beneficiary27,507 (21.2)256 (0.9)27,251 (99.1)174.70< .001
Self-employed dependent12,803 (9.9)148 (1.2)12,655 (98.8)
Employed beneficiary27,457 (21.1)131 (0.5)27,326 (99.5)
Employed dependent54,718 (42.1)671 (1.2)54,047 (98.8)
Medical Aid beneficiary6563 (5.1)133 (2.0)6430 (98.0)
Medical Aid dependent875 (0.7)16 (1.8)859 (98.2)
Admission routeEmergency department101,516 (78.1)730 (2.6)27,677 (97.4)821.25< .001
Outpatient department28,407 (21.9)625 (0.6)100,891 (99.4)
  1. aMean ± SD: mean ± standard deviation, used in GEE logistic regression for confounding variables