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Table 1 Final coding structure with categories, themes and codes

From: NICU and postpartum nurse perspectives on involving fathers in newborn care: a qualitative study

Category Themes Codes
Nurse role and training Direct care of mother, baby Assessment
Cord and circumcision care
Diapering, bathing, swaddling
Post-operative care
Parent education Mother relays info to father
Repeat information for father
Teach whomever is present
Wait for father to arrive
Focus on mothers Training focuses on mothers
Education directed to mothers
Want, need additional training Communication
Fathers’ interests, concerns
Providing education
How to engage fathers
Interactions with fathers Father presence or absence at hospital Home with other children
Not involved with the mother
Out of country
Transportation issues
Work schedule, lack of leave
Ways to engage fathers Answer his questions
Ask about his thoughts, feelings
Demonstrate, show him things
Directly acknowledge him
Don’t push too hard
Educate and inform him
Encourage him to ask questions
Tell him he needs to learn, do things
Perceptions of fathers’ level of engagement Level of engagement As engaged as mothers
Less engaged than mothers
Influences on level of involvement Depends on the person
First-time fathers more engaged
Cultural influences
Barriers to involvement Afraid to touch or handle the baby
Feels left out, ignored
Lack of knowledge, confidence
Maternal gatekeeping
Attitudes toward father involvement Benefits of father involvement Benefits to baby
Benefits to mother
Benefits to family
Father role Equal partner with mother
Secondary caregiver