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Table 4 GEE models for the comparison of outcome variables over the study period (N = 128)

From: The effects of a nurse-led integrative medicine-based structured education program on self-management behaviors among individuals with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial

Variables Group-difference Time1-difference Time2-difference Group*Time1-difference Group*Time2-difference
β (95% CI) p value β (95% CI) p value β (95% CI) p value β (95% CI) p value β (95% CI) p value
HbA1c (%) −0.20
(− 0.62, 0.23)
0.365 0.18
(0.05, 0.30)
0.006 −0.32
(− 0.49, − 0.14)
<  0.001
Diabetes self-management behaviors (SDSCA)
General diet 0.30
(−0.38, 0.98)
0.383 0.37
(−0.04, 0.77)
0.075 0.31
(−0.08, 0.70)
0.114 0.01
(−0.49, 0.51)
0.967 0.19
(−0.32, 0.70)
0.459
Specific diet regarding intake of fruits and vegetables −0.04
(− 0.94, 0.86)
0.934 −0.16
(− 0.62, 0.29)
0.483 −0.12
(− 0.59, 0.36)
0.635 1.02
(0.24, 1.80)
0.011 0.98
(0.18, 1.78)
0.016
Specific diet regarding intake of high fat foods 0.07
(−0.75, 0.88)
0.875 −0.01
(− 0.48, 0.45)
0.958 0.09
(−0.38, 0.55)
0.717 0.83
(0.12, 1.55)
0.023 0.50
(−0.20, 1.20)
0.163
Physical activity −0.15
(− 0.91, 0.62)
0.702 0.10
(−0.27, 0.48)
0.586 −0.15
(− 0.56, 0.26)
0.473 0.15
(−0.31, 0.62)
0.525 0.39
(−0.12, 0.90)
0.132
Blood glucose monitoring −0.25
(−1.02, 0.53)
0.532 −0.03
(− 0.24, 0.17)
0.751 −0.20
(− 0.51, 0.12)
0.218 0.36
(−0.01, 0.72)
0.057 0.64
(0.20, 1.08)
0.004
Foot care −0.17
(−1.1, 0.76)
0.717 −0.04
(− 0.46, 0.39)
0.863 −0.01
(− 0.46, 0.44)
0.962 1.80
(1.05, 2.54)
< 0.001 2.02
(1.27, 2.77)
< 0.001
Smoking status (non-smoker to smoker ratio) 1.23
(0.58, 2.62)
0.593 1.13
(0.85, 1.51)
0.392 1.32
(0.91, 1.91)
0.141 1.38
(0.85, 2.25)
0.195 1.95
(0.95, 4.00)
0.067
Medication management 0.56
(−0.43, 1.55)
0.267 − 0.08
(− 0.27, 0.12)
0.441 − 0.13
(− 0.33, 0.08)
0.230 0.83
(0.25, 1.41)
0.005 0.95
(0.31, 1.58)
0.003
Self-efficacy (DMSES) −3.60
(−15.71, 8.50)
0.560 −2.90
(−5.73, −0.08)
0.044 −3.43
(−6.47, −0.39)
0.027 8.73
(3.34, 14.12)
0.001 9.71
(4.03, 15.38)
0.001
  1. Note: β: difference in values; p value: the probability of a true null hypothesis; HbA1c Glycated Hemoglobin A, SDSCA Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities DMSES Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale; Group-difference: Difference in indicator values between groups at baseline; Time-difference: Within group change in indicator values in the control group; Group*Time-difference: Additional change of the intervention group in indicator values compared to the control group; CI Confidential interval